Regulation of transcription initiation is generally attributable to activator/repressor proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences. However, regulators can also achieve specificity by binding directly to RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exploiting the kinetic variation intrinsic to different RNAP-promoter complexes. We report here a previously unknown… (More)
ICEBs1 is an integrative and conjugative element found in the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis. ICEBs1 encodes functions needed for its excision and transfer to recipient cells. We found that the ICEBs1 gene conE (formerly yddE) is required for conjugation and that conjugative transfer of ICEBs1 requires a conserved ATPase motif of ConE. ConE belongs to the… (More)
Horizontal gene transfer contributes to evolution and the acquisition of new traits. In bacteria, horizontal gene transfer is often mediated by conjugative genetic elements that transfer directly from cell to cell. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs; also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile genetic elements that reside within a host genome… (More)
BACKGROUND Bacillus subtilis encounters a wide range of environmental pH. The bacteria maintain cytoplasmic pH within a narrow range. Response to acid stress is a poorly understood function of external pH and of permeant acids that conduct protons into the cytoplasm. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Cytoplasmic acidification and the benzoate transcriptome… (More)
Please read this handout and other assigned articles prior to coming to class. Bring your microbiology and/or genetics textbook for reference. If possible, please bring your personal laptop for use in class.