Melania Osto

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Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93 % of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS) were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to(More)
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations related to glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. These metabolic alterations are associated with low-grade inflammation that contributes to the onset of these diseases. We and others have provided evidence that gut microbiota participates in whole-body metabolism by affecting energy balance,(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery might modify the gut microbiota composition differently in the three distinct anatomical sections of the small intestine compared to sham surgery. We showed that RYGB induced changes in the microbiota of the alimentary limb and the common channel resembling those seen after prebiotic treatment or weight loss by(More)
BACKGROUND According to the WHO, more than 1 billion people worldwide are overweight and at risk of developing chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and stroke. Current therapies show limited efficacy and are often associated with unpleasant side-effect profiles, hence there is a medical need for new therapeutic(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical remission is frequent in cats with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, but few studies explored predictors of this phenomenon. HYPOTHESIS Data retrieved from medical records at admission might be valuable to identify likelihood of remission and its duration in diabetic cats. ANIMALS Ninety cats with newly diagnosed diabetes,(More)
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in humans and in cats. The general prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and in particular of type 2 diabetes, has risen dramatically in recent years. This increase has often been linked to the rise in the obesity pandemic because obesity and the ensuing metabolic consequences constitute major risk factors for human(More)
This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September–October 2010). A total of 103 filters(More)
Acute inflammation in humans is associated with transient insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. Chronic low-grade inflammation is a pathogenic component of IR and adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. Because feline diabetes closely resembles human type 2 diabetes, we studied whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced subacute(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are cellular receptors that recognize molecules derived from pathogens, endogenous molecules generated after cellular stress, and free fatty acids. TLR activation leads to a proinflammatory reaction that is fundamental in the initiation of an innate immune response and subsequent adaptive responses but also can damage tissues.(More)
Amylin is a pancreatic hormone that is considered to be a satiating signal acting on neurons of the area postrema (AP) in the hindbrain. The adiposity signals leptin and insulin act in the hypothalamus to influence feeding. They also enhance the hindbrain's responsivity to satiating signals, e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is(More)