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Viral diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the few available drugs to treat these diseases often come with limitations. The key obstacle to the development of new antiviral agents is their delivery into infected cells in vivo. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can cross the cellular lipid bilayer with the(More)
Theiler's virus, a murine picornavirus, causes a persistent infection of the central nervous system with chronic inflammation and primary demyelination. We examined the nature of infected cells at different times postinoculation (p.i.) with a combined immunocytochemistry-in situ hybridization assay. The virus was found in the gray matter of the brain,(More)
BACKGROUND Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are platyhelminth parasites that infect 200 million people worldwide. Digestion of nutrients from the host bloodstream is essential for parasite development and reproduction. A network of proteolytic enzymes (proteases) facilitates hydrolysis of host hemoglobin and serum proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
BACKGROUND During the pre-patent stage of infection, juvenile Schistosoma blood flukes co-opt signals from the adaptive immune system to facilitate parasite development, but the types of responses that are induced at this early stage of infection, and the parasite antigens they target, have not been characterized. RESULTS Through analysis of experimental(More)
Tyrosine kinase receptors play a key role in the communication of cells with their environment. Growth hormone receptors, such as insulin receptors, are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and metabolism in multicellular organisms. Insulin-related peptides and members of the insulin receptor subfamily have been described in a wide(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus causes a chronic demyelinating disease in susceptible strains of mice that is similar to human multiple sclerosis. Several nonmajor histocompatibility complex-linked genes have been implicated as determinants of susceptibility or resistance to either demyelination or virus persistence. In this study, we used linkage(More)
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, the complex interaction of host immune system and the mycobacteria is associated with levels of cytokines production that play a major role in determining the outcome of the disease. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes have been associated with tuberculosis (TB) outcome. The aim of(More)
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