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This article presents an interactive technique for moving through an immersive virtual environment (or “virtual reality”). The technique is suitable for applications where locomotion is restricted to ground level. The technique is derived from the idea that presence in virtual environments may be enhanced the stronger the match between(More)
Witmer and Singer recently published a questionnaire for eliciting presence in virtual environments together with a questionnaire for measuring a person's immersive tendencies (Witmer & Singer, 1998). The authors mentioned that they did not agree with my notion of immersion: 'Though the VE equipment is instrumental in enabling immersion, we do not agree(More)
Immersive virtual environments can break the deep, everyday connection between where our senses tell us we are and where we are actually located and whom we are with. The concept of 'presence' refers to the phenomenon of behaving and feeling as if we are in the virtual world created by computer displays. In this article, we argue that presence is worthy of(More)
In this paper, I address the question as to why participants tend to respond realistically to situations and events portrayed within an immersive virtual reality system. The idea is put forward, based on the experience of a large number of experimental studies, that there are two orthogonal components that contribute to this realistic response. The first is(More)
A b st ra ct This paper describes a new measure for presence in immersive virtual environments (VEs) that is based on data that can be unobtrusively obtained during the course of a VE experience. At different times during an experience, a participant will occasionally switch between interpreting the totality of sensory inputs as forming the VE or the real(More)
" We modern, civilised, indoors adults are so accustomed to looking at a page or a picture, or through a window, that we often lose the feeling of being surrounded by the environment, our sense of the ambient array of light... We live boxed up lives. Abstract This paper reviews the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments. We propose that(More)
This paper describes an experiment where the effect of dynamic shadows in an immersive virtual environment is measured with respect to spatial perception and presence. Eight subjects were given tasks to do in a virtual environment. Each subject carried out five experimental trials, and the extent of dynamic shadow phenomena varied between the trials. Two(More)
A study by Slater, et al., [1995] indicated that naive subjects in an immersive virtual environment experience a higher subjective sense of presence when they locomote by walking-in-place (virtual walking) than when they pushbutton fly (along the floor plane). We replicated their study, adding real walking as a third condition. Our study confirmed their(More)
The integration of the human brain with computers is an interesting new area of applied neuroscience, where one application is replacement of a person's real body by a virtual representation. Here we demonstrate that a virtual limb can be made to feel part of your body if appropriate multisensory correlations are provided. We report an illusion that is(More)