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Witmer and Singer recently published a questionnaire for eliciting presence in virtual environments together with a questionnaire for measuring a person’s immersive tendencies (Witmer & Singer, 1998). The authors mentioned that they did not agree with my notion of immersion: ‘Though the VE equipment is instrumental in enabling immersion, we do not agree(More)
This paper reviews the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments. We propose that the degree of immersion can be objectively assessed as the characteristics of a technology, and has dimensions such as the extent to which a display system can deliver an inclusive, extensive, surrounding and vivid illusion of virtual environment to a(More)
This article presents an interactive technique for moving through an immersive virtual environment (or “virtual reality”). The technique is suitable for applications where locomotion is restricted to ground level. The technique is derived from the idea that presence in virtual environments may be enhanced the stronger the match between(More)
  • Mel Slater
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
  • 2009
In this paper, I address the question as to why participants tend to respond realistically to situations and events portrayed within an immersive virtual reality system. The idea is put forward, based on the experience of a large number of experimental studies, that there are two orthogonal components that contribute to this realistic response. The first is(More)
A study by Slater, et al., [1995] indicated that naive subjects in an immersive virtual environment experience a higher subjective sense of presence when they locomote by walking-in-place (virtual walking) than when they push-button-fly (along the floor plane). We replicated their study, adding real walking as a third condition. Our study confirmed their(More)
Immersive virtual environments can break the deep, everyday connection between where our senses tell us we are and where we are actually located and whom we are with. The concept of 'presence' refers to the phenomenon of behaving and feeling as if we are in the virtual world created by computer displays. In this article, we argue that presence is worthy of(More)
A between-group experiment was carried out to assess whether two different presence questionnaires can distinguish between real and virtual experiences. One group of 10 subjects searched for a box in a real office environment. A second group of 10 subjects carried out the same task in a virtual environment simulating the same office. Immediately after their(More)
This paper describes a study to assess the influence of a variety of factors on reported level of presence in immersive virtual environments. It introduces the idea of "stacking depth", that is, where a participant can simulate the process of entering the virtual environment while already in such an environment, which can be repeated to several levels of(More)
This paper describes a new measure for presence in immersive virtual environments (VEs) that is based on data that can be unobtrusively obtained during the course of a VE experience. At different times during an experience, a participant will occasionally switch between interpreting the totality of sensory inputs as forming the VE or the real world. The(More)
We describe an experiment to assess the influence of body movements on presence in a virtual environment. In the experiment 20 participants were to walk through a virtual field of trees and count the trees with diseased leaves. A 2 x 2 between subjects design was used to assess the influence of two factors on presence: tree height variation and task(More)