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Quantifying change in brain activation patterns associated with post-stroke recovery and reorganization of language function over time requires accurate understanding of inter-scan and inter-subject variability. Here we report inter-scan variability measures for fMRI activation patterns associated with verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the research study was to examine the manifestation of variability in reaction times (RT) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine whether RT variability presented differently across a variety of neuropsychological tasks, was present across the two most common ADHD subtypes, and whether it was(More)
Processing pediatric neuroimaging data is a challenge due to pervasive morphological changes that occur in the human brain during normal development. This is of special relevance when reference data is used as part of the processing approach, as in spatial normalization and tissue segmentation. Current approaches construct reference data (templates) by(More)
OBJECTIVE Language skills continue to develop rapidly in children during the school-age years, and the "snapshot" view of the neural substrates of language provided by current neuroimaging studies cannot capture the dynamic changes associated with brain development. The aim of this study was to conduct a 5-year longitudinal investigation of language(More)
Spatial normalization and segmentation of infant brain MRI data based on adult or pediatric reference data may not be appropriate due to the developmental differences between the infant input data and the reference data. In this study we have constructed infant templates and a priori brain tissue probability maps based on the MR brain image data from 76(More)
BACKGROUND Although environmental lead exposure is associated with significant deficits in cognition, executive functions, social behaviors, and motor abilities, the neuroanatomical basis for these impairments remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between childhood lead exposure and adult brain volume using magnetic(More)
BACKGROUND Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease that afflicts 10% of extremely preterm infants. The contribution of early intestinal colonization to NEC onset is not understood, and predictive biomarkers to guide prevention are lacking. We analyzed banked stool and urine samples collected prior to disease onset from infants(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate changes in brain activation patterns detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), and the relationship between FMRI activation patterns and results of formal neuropsychological testing, in patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS Ten patients with childhood-onset SLE underwent formal(More)
UNLABELLED This study compared production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 children with autism spectrum disorder to those from matched controls. Levels of all Th2 cytokines were significantly higher in cases after incubation in media alone, but the IFN-gamma/IL-13 ratio was not significantly(More)
This study investigates the morphometry of Heschl's gyrus and its included primary auditory cortex (PAC) in hearing impaired (HI) and normal hearing (NH) infants. Fourty-two infants, age 8-19 months, with NH (n = 26) or hearing impairment (n = 16) were studied using high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM)(More)