Learn More
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a conserved process mediating vacuolar degradation and recycling. Autophagy is highly upregulated upon various stresses and is essential for cell survival in deleterious conditions. Autophagy defects are associated with severe pathologies, whereas unchecked autophagy activity causes cell death. Therefore, to support proper cellular(More)
Anillin is a scaffolding protein that organizes and stabilizes actomyosin contractile rings and was previously thought to function primarily in cytokinesis [1-10]. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system to examine Anillin's role in the intact vertebrate epithelium, we find that a population of Anillin surprisingly localizes to epithelial cell-cell(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy as a conserved lysosomal/vacuolar degradation and recycling pathway is important in normal development and physiology, and defects in this process are linked to many kinds of disease. Because too much or too little autophagy can be detrimental, the process must be tightly regulated both temporally and in magnitude. Two parameters that(More)
Autophagy as a conserved degradation and recycling process in eukaryotic cells, occurs constitutively, but is induced by stress. A fine regulation of autophagy in space, time, and intensity is critical for maintaining normal energy homeostasis and metabolism, and to allow for its therapeutic modulation in various autophagy-related human diseases. Autophagy(More)
Autophagy has been implicated in a number of physiological processes important for human heath and disease. Autophagy involves the formation of a double-membrane cytosolic vesicle, an autophagosome. Central to the formation of the autophagosome is the ubiquitin-like protein autophagy-related (Atg)8 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3 in(More)
Mitophagy, the autophagic removal of mitochondria, occurs through a highly selective mechanism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondria sequestration as a cargo by the autophagic machinery through its interaction with Atg11, a scaffold protein for selective types of(More)
Autophagy is a pathway mediating vacuolar degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles, which plays crucial roles in cellular physiology. To ensure its proper cytoprotective function, the induction and amplitude of autophagy are tightly regulated, and defects in its regulation are associated with various diseases. Transcriptional control of(More)