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THAM (trometamol; tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) is a biologically inert amino alcohol of low toxicity, which buffers carbon dioxide and acids in vitro and in vivo. At 37 degrees C, the pK (the pH at which the weak conjugate acid or base in the solution is 50% ionised) of THAM is 7.8, making it a more effective buffer than bicarbonate in the physiological(More)
Type II collagen (CII) is a target for autoreactive T cells in both rheumatoid arthritis and the murine model collagen-induced arthritis. The determinant core of CII has been identified as CII260-270, and the alteration of this T cell epitope by posttranslational modifications is known to be critical for development of arthritis in mice. Using CII-specific(More)
INTRODUCTION Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is induced after immunization with type II collagen (CII). CIA, like RA, is an autoimmune disease leading to destruction of cartilage and joints, and both the priming and inflammatory phases have been suggested to be dependent on proteases. In particular, the(More)
Dendritic cells, such as epidermal Langerhans cells, play a crucial role for the antigen-specific priming of T cells. We have addressed the question whether dendritic cells present collagen, a major protein component in tissues through which dendritic cells migrate, i.e. the basement membrane, dermis, and synovial tissue. Langerhans cells, spleen cells and(More)
Psoriasis (Ps) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) are poorly understood common diseases, induced by unknown environmental factors, affecting skin and articular joints. A single i.p. exposure to mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced an acute inflammation in inbred mouse strains resembling human Ps and PsA-like disease, whereas multiple injections induced a(More)
DA rats develop chronic arthritis after immunization with native rat type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) (= collagen-induced arthritis, CIA). The same rat strain develops an acute, self-limited form of arthritis after injection with IFA alone (= oil-adjuvant-induced arthritis, OIA). The induction of a chronic course of(More)