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Female and male brains differ. Differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual. Although researchers from a myriad of disciplines are beginning to appreciate the importance of considering sex differences in the design and interpretation of their studies,(More)
New mothers are more attracted to the body odor of newborn infants than are nonmothers. In this study we investigated the relation of postpartum hormones and of prior experience with infants to this enhanced maternal attraction to infant odors. New mothers were asked to complete a hedonics task, using a pleasantness scale to provide an attraction score to(More)
A history of child maltreatment increases the vulnerability to the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), especially in females. Both MDD and PTSD are associated with a dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Dysregulation of the HPA axis may be an important etiological link(More)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which affects 2%–5% of premenopausal women, was included in Appendix B of DSMIV, "Criterion Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study." Since then, aided by the inclusion of specific and rigorous criteria in DSM-IV, there has been an explosion of research on the epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the(More)
This study explores the role of cortisol and early life experiences in the regulation of maternal behavior and mood in teen and adult mothers. Primiparous mothers (n=119) (teen mothers < 19 years, n=42), young mothers (19-25 years, n= 4), and mature mothers, (>25 years, n=43) were assessed for their maternal behavior, mood, and hormonal profile at(More)
To determine the responsiveness of new fathers and non-fathers toward infant cues, we exposed fathers and non-fathers to infant cries and to control stimuli and we measured affective, heart-rate, and endocrine responses, including salivary testosterone and cortisol and plasma prolactin concentrations prior to and after cry presentations. We found that (1)(More)
It is well known that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated during stress. Recent work suggests it is also implicated in the regulation of "normal" behaviors. The present studies investigated the effects of adrenalectomy and of varying glucocorticoid concentrations on adult maternal behavior in primiparous rats. In two studies, rats in(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have examined stress reactivity and its relationship to major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among maltreated youth. We examined differences between maltreated and control participants in heart rate and cortisol resting and reactivity levels in response to a psychosocial stressor. METHODS We(More)
Hormones associated with parturition prime rats to behave maternally, although hormonal changes are not necessary for these behaviors to occur. Experience with pups after birth enhances maternal responsiveness after a period of isolation, creating a maternal memory. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of corticosterone in the formation of(More)
Juvenile female rats show maternal-like behavior toward pups. The purpose of the following experiment was to investigate whether the HPA axis, through the use of early separation manipulations that alter HPA functioning in rats, plays a role in the juvenile response to foster pups. Female rats were early deprived or maternally separated for 5 hours daily(More)