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Four hundred thirty-eight subjects underwent an overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) to standardize the test for the diagnosis of melancholia (endogenous depression). Abnormal plasma cortisol concentrations within 24 hours after dexamethasone administration occurred almost exclusively in melancholic patients. The best plasma cortisol criterion(More)
A variety of instruments have been used in an attempt to operationalize DSM-IV criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and to understand clinically significant premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The objectives of this research were to devise a simple user friendly screening tool to identify women who suffer from severe PMS/PMDD and who are likely to(More)
Female and male brains differ. Differences begin early during development due to a combination of genetic and hormonal events and continue throughout the lifespan of an individual. Although researchers from a myriad of disciplines are beginning to appreciate the importance of considering sex differences in the design and interpretation of their studies,(More)
Research diagnostic criteria for premenstrual tension syndrome (PMTS) are developed using data collected from a study of 42 women who were suffering from severe PMTS but were well at other times. Two specific scales are also devised for rating the severity of PMTS, a 36-item self-report questionnaire and a 10-item scale for use by therapist/researcher. It(More)
The second consensus meeting of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) took place in London during March 2011. The primary goal was to evaluate the published evidence and consider the expert opinions of the ISPMD members to reach a consensus on advice for the management of premenstrual disorders. Gynaecologists, psychiatrists,(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the perinatal risks involved in untreated depression during pregnancy. METHOD We searched Medline and medical texts for all studies pertaining to this area up to the end of April 2003. Key phrases entered were depression and pregnancy, depression and pregnancy outcome, and depression and untreated pregnancy. We did(More)
To determine the responsiveness of new fathers and non-fathers toward infant cues, we exposed fathers and non-fathers to infant cries and to control stimuli and we measured affective, heart-rate, and endocrine responses, including salivary testosterone and cortisol and plasma prolactin concentrations prior to and after cry presentations. We found that (1)(More)
The lifetime prevalence of mood disorders in women is approximately twice that of men. The underlying causality of this gender difference is not yet understood. There is increasing scientific attention to the modulation of the neuroendocrine system by fluctuating gonadal hormones. This review attempts to summarize our current state of knowledge on the role(More)
Pregnancy is associated with major physiological changes and adaptation to these changes is crucial for normal fetal development. Heightened emotional stress during pregnancy may interfere with the necessary adaptation and lead to dysregulation of the two major stress response systems: the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis and the Autonomic Nervous(More)
A history of child maltreatment increases the vulnerability to the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), especially in females. Both MDD and PTSD are associated with a dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Dysregulation of the HPA axis may be an important etiological link(More)