Information of tintinnid community, as an important component of plankton, was limited in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (Arctic), which is an important Arctic monitoring site for global change. In this paper, we studied the species composition, spatial, and vertical distribution of tintinnids in Kongsfjorden in July 2012. Water samples for tintinnid study were… (More)
—A new reliability measure is introduced. The measure takes into account service degradations once the network is disconnected. A network retailer can use this measure to choose an optimal set of paths such that the desired compromise between cost and reliability is achieved.