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Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly understood. Here we show that the homeobox genes Tlx3 and Tlx1 determine excitatory over inhibitory cell fates in the mouse(More)
The Pax5 gene encoding the B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) is expressed within the haematopoietic system exclusively in the B-lymphoid lineage, where it is required in vivo for progression beyond the pro-B-cell stage. However, Pax5 is not essential for in vitro propagation of pro-B cells in the presence of interleukin-7 and stromal cells. Here we(More)
Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family are known to be specifically involved in mammary carcinogenesis. As a nuclear target of activated receptors, we examined c-Jun in mammary epithelial cells. For this, we used a c-JunER fusion protein which was tightly controlled by estrogen. Activation of the JunER by hormone resulted in the(More)
The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless (ey) plays a key role in eye development. Here we show tht Drosophila contains a second Pax-6 gene, twin of eyeless (toy), due to a duplication during insect evolution. Toy is more similar to vertebrate Pax-6 proteins than Ey with regard to overall sequence conservation, DNA-binding function, and early expression in the(More)
As a novel approach to studying the modulation of the polarized epithelial phenotype, we have expressed c-Fos and c-Myc estrogen receptor fusion proteins (c-FosER and c-MycER) in mammary epithelial cells. The hybrid proteins could be activated by estrogen for defined time periods and after the cells had achieved their fully polarized organization.(More)
The Pax5 gene, coding for the transcription factor BSAP, was mutated in the mouse germline by targeted disruption. Homozygous mutant mice were born alive, became growth retarded, and usually died within three weeks. About 5% of mutants survived to adulthood and were fertile, but severely runted. Morphogenesis of the posterior midbrain was affected as early(More)
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) variable region exons are assembled from V(H), D and J(H) gene segments in developing B lymphocytes. Within the 2.7-megabase mouse Igh locus, V(D)J recombination is regulated to ensure specific and diverse antibody repertoires. Here we report in mice a key Igh V(D)J recombination regulatory region, termed intergenic control(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently recognized group of lymphocytes that have important functions in protecting epithelial barriers against infections and in maintaining organ homeostasis. ILCs have been categorized into three distinct groups, transcriptional circuitry and effector functions of which strikingly resemble the various T helper cell(More)