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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside at mucosal surfaces and control immunity to intestinal infections. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, are required for immune defense against helminth infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of airway hyperreactivity. Here, we have investigated the role of the(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently recognized group of lymphocytes that have important functions in protecting epithelial barriers against infections and in maintaining organ homeostasis. ILCs have been categorized into three distinct groups, transcriptional circuitry and effector functions of which strikingly resemble the various T helper cell(More)
Previous DNA-binding studies indicated that an intact paired domain is required for interaction of the transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) with DNA. We have now identified a subset of BSAP recognition sequences that also bind to a truncated BSAP peptide lacking 36 carboxy-terminal amino acids of the paired domain. Sequence comparison of this class of(More)
Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly understood. Here we show that the homeobox genes Tlx3 and Tlx1 determine excitatory over inhibitory cell fates in the mouse(More)
The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless (ey) plays a key role in eye development. Here we show tht Drosophila contains a second Pax-6 gene, twin of eyeless (toy), due to a duplication during insect evolution. Toy is more similar to vertebrate Pax-6 proteins than Ey with regard to overall sequence conservation, DNA-binding function, and early expression in the(More)
Pax-6 is known to be a key regulator of vertebrate eye development. We have now isolated cDNA for an invertebrate Pax-6 protein from sea urchin embryos. Transcripts of this gene first appear during development at the gastrula stage and are later expressed at high levels in the tube foot of the adult sea urchin. The sea urchin Pax-6 protein is highly(More)
The subnuclear location and chromatin state of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus have been implicated in the control of VDJ recombination. VH-to-DJH rearrangement of distal, but not proximal V(H) genes, furthermore, depends on the B-lineage commitment factor Pax5 (BSAP). He e we demonstrate that ectopic Pax5 expression from the Ikaros promote(More)
The Pax5 gene, coding for the transcription factor BSAP, was mutated in the mouse germline by targeted disruption. Homozygous mutant mice were born alive, became growth retarded, and usually died within three weeks. About 5% of mutants survived to adulthood and were fertile, but severely runted. Morphogenesis of the posterior midbrain was affected as early(More)
BSAP has been identified previously as a transcription factor that is expressed at early, but not late, stages of B-cell differentiation. Biochemical purification and cDNA cloning has now revealed that BSAP belongs to the family of paired domain proteins. BSAP is encoded by the Pax-5 gene and has been highly conserved between human and mouse. An intact(More)