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Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are increasingly recognised neuroimaging findings in individuals with cerebrovascular disease and dementia, and in normal ageing. There has been substantial progress in the understanding of CMBs in recent years, particularly in the development of newer MRI methods for the detection of CMBs and the application of these techniques(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is increasingly used both in research and in clinical medicine, and scanner hardware and MRI sequences are continually being improved. These advances are likely to result in the detection of unexpected, asymptomatic brain abnormalities, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, and subclinical vascular(More)
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
Previously reported leftward asymmetry in language-related gray and white matter areas of the brain has been proposed as a structural correlate of left-sided functional hemispheric language lateralization. However, structural asymmetry in non-left-sided functional language lateralization has as yet not been studied. Furthermore, the neuroanatomical basis of(More)
The importance of macrostructural white matter changes, including white matter lesions and atrophy, in intact brain functioning is increasingly being recognized. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables measurement of the microstructural integrity of white matter. Loss of white matter integrity in aging has been reported, but whether this is inherent to the(More)
CONTEXT The role of macrostructural white matter changes, such as atrophy and white matter lesions, in cognitive decline is increasingly being recognized. However, in the elderly population, these macrostructural changes do not account for all variability in cognition. Measures reflecting white matter microstructural integrity may provide additional(More)
A fully automated brain tissue segmentation method is optimized and extended with white matter lesion segmentation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are segmented by an atlas-based k-nearest neighbor classifier on multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging data. This classifier is trained by registering brain atlases to the(More)
The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed(More)
We investigated how volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) varied with age, sex, small vessel disease and cardiovascular risk factors in the Rotterdam Scan Study. Participants (n=490; 60-90 years) were non-demented and 51.0% had hypertension, 4.9% had diabetes mellitus, 17.8% were current smoker and 54.0% were former(More)
OBJECTIVE White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detectable by magnetic resonance imaging are part of the spectrum of vascular injury associated with aging of the brain and are thought to reflect ischemic damage to the small deep cerebral vessels. WMHs are associated with an increased risk of cognitive and motor dysfunction, dementia, depression, and stroke.(More)