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Network failures occur frequently, and self-healing ability of existing routing protocols cannot guarantee fast route convergence under these failures without impacting packet forwarding. During routing convergence, network routes may be incorrect and even routing black holes and loops occur, which will result in extensive packet loss and thus influence(More)
In recent years, there are substantial demands to reduce packet loss in the Internet. Among the schemes proposed, finding backup paths in advance is considered to be an effective method to reduce the reaction time. Very commonly, a backup path is chosen to be a most disjoint path from the primary path, or in the network level, backup paths are computed for(More)
In recent years, there are substantial demands to reduce packet loss on the Internet. Among the proposed schemes, finding backup paths in advance is considered to be an effective method to reduce the reaction time. Very commonly, a backup path is chosen to be the most disjoint path from the primary path, or on the network level, a backup path is computed(More)
In this paper, the knowledge of the fuzzy mathematics, game theory and artificial life computing method is introduced to design a flexible QoS unicast routing scheme. Based on the QGA (quantum genetic algorithm), it searches for a QoS unicast path with Pareto-optimum under Nash equilibrium between the provider utility and the user utility achieved or(More)
The current routing system of the Internet is in nature best-effort. We often observe, however, that the Internet routing today drops packets upon network abnormalities; even when the network is not congested, and/or physical paths exist. Such strategy usually makes the routing design simple; and even the packet is dropped, well, we know we have TCP.(More)
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