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The dysfunction of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the function of TDP-43 is not fully elucidated. Here we show that the protein level of endogenous TDP-43 in the nucleus is increased in mouse cortical neurons in the early stages, but return to basal level in the later stages after glutamate(More)
Most G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) regulate multiple cellular processes by coupling to more than one kind of G protein. Furthermore, recent studies have reported G protein-independent/β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathway for some GPCRs. Dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors (D(2)R, D(3)R), the major targets of currently used antipsychotic drugs, are(More)
Rab3D, a small Ras-like GTPase, is a key regulator of intracellular vesicle transport during exocytosis. It has been shown that Rab3 GTPases are abundant in cells with regulated secretory pathways and are thought to confer the specificity of docking and fusion during regulated exocytosis. Unlike other Rab3 isoforms, Rab3D is enriched in a number of(More)
Among the characterized dopamine receptor subtypes, D₂ receptor (D₂R) and D₃ receptor (D₃R) are the main targets of neuroleptics that are currently in use. In particular, D₃R is closely related to the etiology of schizophrenia and drug addiction. The spatial expression patterns of D₂R and D₃R are distinct in certain areas of the brain. D₂R are heavily(More)
The regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were analyzed using mutant dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)Rs) in which all possible GPCR kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites were mutated or the affinity for beta-arrestins was altered. Agonist-induced internalization of D(2)Rs involved a(More)
This study analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts with spinal nerve root fibers treated by reconstruction of the nerve root sheaths. The relationships between the cysts and spinal nerve root fibers were examined microscopically, the cysts were partially excised, and the defects were oversewn to(More)
Ankyrin repeat, one of the most important protein motifs, plays a wide variety of roles in protein-protein interactions and in the signal pathways. Via large-scale sequencing, a novel 941-bp gene was isolated from an 18-week old human fetal brain cDNA library. It encodes a putative protein of 158 amino acid residues with four conserved ankyrin repeat(More)
GRK2-/β-Arrestin- and PKA-/PKC-mediated desensitization, internalization, and degradation are three representative pathways for regulating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Compared with GRK2/β-arrestin-mediated ones, functional relationship among the aforementioned three regulatory processes mediated by PKA/PKC is less clear. Dopamine D3 receptor (D3R),(More)