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AbstrAct This study combined ideas from learning hierarchy and scaffolding theory to design a web-based, adaptive learning system to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding for elementary school students having different levels of learning achievement. The topic chosen for learning was the Three States of Water. A quasi-experiment was conducted. In(More)
Laser ablation ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analysis is a powerful tool for studies of fish ecology, based on measurement of the chemical composition of otoliths (ear stones). A key trade-off for this analysis is selecting the size of the ablation area to maximize the resolution for discrete temporal intervals during the life of an(More)
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