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This paper presents a new hypothesis alignment method for combining outputs of multiple machine translation (MT) systems. An indirect hidden Markov model (IHMM) is proposed to address the synonym matching and word ordering issues in hypothesis alignment. Unlike traditional HMMs whose parameters are trained via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), the(More)
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is(More)
We propose a backoff model for phrase-based machine translation that translates unseen word forms in foreign-language text by hierarchical morphological abstractions at the word and the phrase level. The model is evaluated on the Europarl corpus for German-English and Finnish-English translation and shows improvements over state-of-the-art phrase-based(More)
 congestion occurs when the number of packets being transmitted through the network approaches the packet handling capacity of the network  congestion control aims to keep number of packets below a level at which performance falls off dramatically  a data network is a network of queues  generally 80% utilization is critical  finite queues mean data may(More)
Expression of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) on the surface of thymocytes and mature T cells is dependent on the assembly of receptor subunits into TCRs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their successful traversal of the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. TCR subunits that fail to exit the ER for the Golgi complex are degraded by nonlysosomal(More)
Plants vary significantly in their ability to tolerate low temperatures. The CBF/DREB1 cold response pathway has been identified in many plant species and plays a pivotal role in low temperature tolerance. Here, we show that GhDREB1 is a functional homologue and elevates the freezing, salt and osmotic stress tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. The(More)
PURPOSE We aim to examine miR-21 expression in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC) and correlate it with patient clinical status, and to investigate its contribution to TSCC cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MicroRNA profiling was done in 10 cases of TSCC with microarray. MiR-21 overexpression was quantitated with(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of intracavernous injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on cavernous nerve (CN) regeneration and functional status in a nerve-crush rat model. Thirty Sprague–Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: one group underwent sham operation, while two groups underwent bilateral CN(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found(More)