Learn More
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is(More)
This paper presents a new hypothesis alignment method for combining outputs of multiple machine translation (MT) systems. An indirect hidden Markov model (IHMM) is proposed to address the synonym matching and word ordering issues in hypothesis alignment. Unlike traditional HMMs whose parameters are trained via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), the(More)
PURPOSE We aim to examine miR-21 expression in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC) and correlate it with patient clinical status, and to investigate its contribution to TSCC cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MicroRNA profiling was done in 10 cases of TSCC with microarray. MiR-21 overexpression was quantitated with(More)
We propose a backoff model for phrasebased machine translation that translates unseen word forms in foreign-language text by hierarchical morphological abstractions at the word and the phrase level. The model is evaluated on the Europarl corpus for German-English and FinnishEnglish translation and shows improvements over state-of-the-art phrase-based models.
Expression of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) on the surface of thymocytes and mature T cells is dependent on the assembly of receptor subunits into TCRs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their successful traversal of the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. TCR subunits that fail to exit the ER for the Golgi complex are degraded by nonlysosomal(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found microRNAs(More)
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are important anti-oxidant enzymes that guard against superoxide toxicity. Various SOD enzymes have been characterized that employ either a copper, manganese, iron or nickel co-factor to carry out the disproportionation of superoxide. This review focuses on the copper and manganese forms, with particular emphasis on how the metal(More)
Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the mitochondria plays a key role in protection against oxidative stress. Here we probed the pathway by which SOD2 acquires its manganese catalytic cofactor. We found that a mitochondrial localization is essential. A cytosolic version of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sod2p is largely apo for manganese and is(More)
Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the(More)