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Plants produce a vast array of specialized metabolites, many of which are used as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, and other high-value fine chemicals. However, most of these compounds occur in non-model plants for which genomic sequence information is not yet available. The production of a large amount of nucleotide sequence data using next-generation(More)
BACKGROUND Using 3D generic models to statistically analyze trends in biological structure changes is an important tool in morphometrics research. Therefore, 3D generic models built for a range of populations are in high demand. However, due to the complexity of biological structures and the limited views of them that medical images can offer, it is still(More)
Studies examining the association between alcohol intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer have given inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to summarize and examine the evidence regarding the association between alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer risk based on results from prospective cohort studies. We searched electronic databases(More)
The BRENDA enzyme information system (http://www.brenda-enzymes.org/) has developed into an elaborate system of enzyme and enzyme-ligand information obtained from different sources, combined with flexible query systems and evaluation tools. The information is obtained by manual extraction from primary literature, text and data mining, data integration, and(More)
Cell proliferation is critical to the outgrowth of biological structures including the face and limbs. This cellular process has traditionally been studied via sequential histological sampling of these tissues. The length and tedium of traditional sampling is a major impediment to analyzing the large datasets required to accurately model cellular processes.(More)
Beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside and its aglycone (the major constituent of the seed oil of Hippophae rhamnoides L.) were investigated for their antigastroulcerative activity in rats. Two experimental gastric ulcer models were selected: chronic acetic acid-induced ulcers and cold stress-induced ulcers. Both the glucoside and its aglycone showed(More)
Color coding is used to guide attention in computer displays for such critical tasks as baggage screening or air traffic control. It has been shown that a display object attracts more attention if its color is more similar to the color for which one is searching. However, what does similar precisely mean? Can we predict the amount of attention that a(More)
—Neuro-fuzzy (NF) systems are very suitable tools to deal with uncertainty encountered in the process of extracting useful information from images. We present a novel adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for edge detection in digital images. The internal parameters of the proposed ANFIS edge detector are optimized by training using very simple(More)
Advances in the measurement of eye movements make it possible to construct gaze-controlled interfaces for physically challenged people and for enhanced human-computer interaction. The use of hybrid interfaces that combine manual and gaze control has the advantage of being effortless, quick, and intuitive: The user selects an item by looking at it and(More)
Based on assumption that background would not be the parts which appear in the sequence for a short time, a background reconstruction algorithm based on online clustering was proposed in this paper. Firstly, pixels intensities are classified based on online clustering. Secondly, cluster centers and appearance probabilities of each cluster are calculated.(More)