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Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to cause Mendelian forms of Parkinson disease (PD), most notably in SNCA and PARK2. PARK2 has a recessive mode of inheritance; however, recent evidence demonstrates that a single CNV in PARK2 (but not a single missense mutation) may increase risk for PD. We recently performed a genome-wide association study for PD that(More)
In addition to their role in cellular bioenergetics, mitochondria also initiate common forms of programmed cell death (apoptosis) through the release of proteins such as cytochrome c from the intermembrane and intracristal spaces. The release of these proteins is studied in populations of cells by western blotting mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions of(More)
Both glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can protect nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxins in rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease (PD). These two neurotrophic factors are usually tested individually. This study was designed to compare GDNF, BDNF, or both, for their(More)
Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons(More)
BACKGROUND We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S), is associated with approximately 5 to 6% of familial PD cases and 1 to 2% of idiopathic cases, making it the most common known(More)
The Esx-1 (type VII) secretion system is a major virulence determinant of pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum. However, the molecular events and host-pathogen interactions underlying Esx-1-mediated virulence in vivo remain unclear. Here we address this problem in a non-lethal mouse model of M. marinum infection that allows detailed(More)
Fluorescent proteins facilitate a variety of imaging paradigms in live and fixed samples. However, they lose their fluorescence after heavy fixation, hindering applications such as correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). Here we report engineered variants of the photoconvertible Eos fluorescent protein that fluoresce and photoconvert normally in(More)
CONTEXT Previous functional neuroimaging studies have identified a network of brain regions that process aversive stimuli, including anger. A polymorphism near the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein gene (CREB1) has recently been associated with greater self-reported effort at anger control as well as risk for antidepressant(More)
Starch physicochemical properties strongly influence eating and cooking quality of rice. The cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, derived CAPS, and InDel markers for 13 starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) were developed, and together with markers developed before, there are 35 markers tagged for 23 SSRGs, with each gene tagged with at least one(More)