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Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related diseases remain a major public health problem. Individuals coinfected with its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) have more severe disease. Cellular entry of both viruses is mediated by HBV envelope proteins. The pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein is a key determinant for receptor(s) binding.(More)
BACKGROUND Both clinical evidence and findings from animal models demonstrate that there are differences between adolescents and adults in alcohol dependence. As stress plays a critical role in processes of alcohol addiction, we tested whether stress is involved in alcohol vulnerability differently during adolescence and adulthood in mice. METHODS To(More)
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus, hepatitis D virus (HDV), primarily infect humans, chimpanzees, or tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Viral infections in other species are known to be mainly restricted at the entry level since viral replication can be achieved in the cells by transfection of the viral genome. Sodium taurocholate(More)
In this paper we present a cross-layer algorithm for joint optimization of congestion control, routing, and scheduling in wireless multi-hop networks with network coding. We introduce virtual flow variables in the formulation of capacity region of the networks. The utility maximization problem subject to constraints on the capacity region is solved using(More)
AIM To elucidate the characteristics of occurrence for Han Chinese familial keloids. METHOD To find out their common characteristics of occurrence by studying the clinical and genetic information of six Han Chinese pedigrees with familial keloids with all the family members having no recorded marriage history to other races except Han people. RESULT(More)
Relay selection is crucial in improving the performance of wireless cooperative networks. Most previous works for relay selection use the current observed channel conditions to make the relay-selection decision for the subsequent frame. However, this memoryless channel assumption is often not realistic given the time-varying nature of some mobile(More)
The sliceable optical transponder, which can transmit/receive multiple optical flows, was recently proposed to improve a transponder's flexibility. The upper-layer traffic can be offloaded onto an optical layer with “just-enough transponder” resources. Traffic grooming evolves as the optical transponder shifts from fixed to sliceable.(More)
Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and(More)
Roaming across heterogeneous wireless networks such as wireless wide area network (WWAN) and wireless local area network (WLAN) poses considerable challenges, as it is usually difficult to maintain the existing connections and guarantee the necessary end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS). This paper proposes a novel end-to-end QoS guaranteed seamless handover(More)
In this paper, we consider a cross-layer design aimed to enhance performance for uplink transmission in an orthogonal frequency division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based cellular network with fixed relay stations. Because mobile stations (MSs) spend most of the power on the uplink transmission, power efficiency resource allocation becomes very important to(More)