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A chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure regimen consists of repeated episodes of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. CIE treatment has been reported to result in a significant enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in vivo, and trafficking of NMDA receptors is emerging a key regulatory mechanism that underlies(More)
The study was designed to test whether blockade of endogenous NO production affects learning and memory formation in rats. The rats received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine (NAME), 30 min before each training, and were then tested in the one-trial passive avoidance response(More)
Tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, is an α/β heterodimer. Both α- and β-tubulin exist as numerous isotypes, differing in their amino acid sequences and encoded by different genes. The differences are highly conserved in evolution, suggesting that they are functionally significant. Neurons are a potentially very useful system for elucidating this(More)
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor of multiple neuronal genes. This study addressed the role of NRSF in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B promoter activity and the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced NR2B up-regulation in fetal cortical neurons. The 5'-flanking region of the NR2B gene contains five NRSE-like(More)
The number and distribution of Fos-like-immunoreactive neurons in different supraspinal brain areas induced by formalin injection into one hindpaw was estimated in rats with transected dorsal half of the spinal cord at the thoracic level in an attempt to avoid most of the descending modulatory actions. The results showed that: (i) after spinal lesion, the(More)
BACKGROUND The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene(More)
This study investigated the effect of NO on c-Fos expression using immunocytochemical techniques, following training in the one-trial passive avoidance response and Morris water maze tasks. Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) neurons were examined in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats in which intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of(More)
Prenatal alcohol exposure produces many developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS), such as in the corpus callosum (CC). This study was designed to observe the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure during the second trimester equivalent on the development of dendritic arbors of CC projection neurons (CCpn) in rat visual cortex. In addition, the(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated alcohol exposure is known to increase subsequent ethanol consumption in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. One postulated mechanism involves epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation of relevant genes such as NR2B or BDNF. METHODS To investigate the role of(More)
Acetaminophen has been used as an analgesic for more than a hundred years, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Recently, it has been shown that acetaminophen produces analgesia by the activation of the brain endocannabinoid receptor CB1 through its para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol) metabolite. The objective of this study was to determine(More)