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BACKGROUND Increasing evidence indicates that repeated exposure to and withdrawal from alcohol can result in persistent molecular and cellular adaptations. One molecular adaptation that occurs is the regulation of gene expression, which is thought to lead to the functional alterations that characterize addiction: tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, craving,(More)
A chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure regimen consists of repeated episodes of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. CIE treatment has been reported to result in a significant enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in vivo, and trafficking of NMDA receptors is emerging a key regulatory mechanism that underlies(More)
We have shown previously that long-term ethanol treatment causes an up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2B subunit (NR2B) number and function in cultured fetal mouse cortical neurons. To examine the intracellular signaling pathways involved in this NR2B gene transcription, we have subjected fetal cortical neurons to long-term treatment(More)
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) has been reported to regulate the gene expression in a wide variety of cellular processes in response to stimuli. In this study, we investigated the DNA-protein binding activities and promoter activity in the N-methyl-D-aspartate R2B (NR2B) gene AP-1 site in normal and ethanol-treated cultured neurons. The identity of the AP-1(More)
Expression of the NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene is upregulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment and withdrawal, which underlies behavioral alterations in addiction. The goal of this study was to characterize the changes of histone modifications induced by CIE treatment and its subsequent removal associated to the upregulation of NR2B(More)
Prenatal alcohol exposure produces many developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS), such as in the corpus callosum (CC). This study was designed to observe the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure during the second trimester equivalent on the development of dendritic arbors of CC projection neurons (CCpn) in rat visual cortex. In addition, the(More)
Macrophages have the potential to deliver therapeutic genes to many target tissues. Macrophage-specific synthetic promoters (SPs) generated by random ligation of myeloid/macrophage cis elements had activity up to 100-fold that of a native macrophage promoter in macrophage cell lines, but were minimally active in nonmyeloid cells. Mouse bone marrow cells(More)
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor of multiple neuronal genes. This study addressed the role of NRSF in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B promoter activity and the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced NR2B up-regulation in fetal cortical neurons. The 5'-flanking region of the NR2B gene contains five NRSE-like(More)
BACKGROUND The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene(More)
Acetaminophen has been used as an analgesic for more than a hundred years, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Recently, it has been shown that acetaminophen produces analgesia by the activation of the brain endocannabinoid receptor CB1 through its para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol) metabolite. The objective of this study was to determine(More)