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A chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure regimen consists of repeated episodes of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. CIE treatment has been reported to result in a significant enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses in vivo, and trafficking of NMDA receptors is emerging a key regulatory mechanism that underlies(More)
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) has been reported to regulate the gene expression in a wide variety of cellular processes in response to stimuli. In this study, we investigated the DNA-protein binding activities and promoter activity in the N-methyl-D-aspartate R2B (NR2B) gene AP-1 site in normal and ethanol-treated cultured neurons. The identity of the AP-1(More)
Tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, is an α/β heterodimer. Both α- and β-tubulin exist as numerous isotypes, differing in their amino acid sequences and encoded by different genes. The differences are highly conserved in evolution, suggesting that they are functionally significant. Neurons are a potentially very useful system for elucidating this(More)
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor of multiple neuronal genes. This study addressed the role of NRSF in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B promoter activity and the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced NR2B up-regulation in fetal cortical neurons. The 5'-flanking region of the NR2B gene contains five NRSE-like(More)
BACKGROUND The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene(More)
Prenatal alcohol exposure produces many developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS), such as in the corpus callosum (CC). This study was designed to observe the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure during the second trimester equivalent on the development of dendritic arbors of CC projection neurons (CCpn) in rat visual cortex. In addition, the(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated alcohol exposure is known to increase subsequent ethanol consumption in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. One postulated mechanism involves epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation of relevant genes such as NR2B or BDNF. METHODS To investigate the role of(More)
Acetaminophen has been used as an analgesic for more than a hundred years, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Recently, it has been shown that acetaminophen produces analgesia by the activation of the brain endocannabinoid receptor CB1 through its para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol) metabolite. The objective of this study was to determine(More)
In order to further optimize the treatment strategy for the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, we were dedicated to study the therapeutic effects and influential factors in the process of treated basilar artery occlusion with thrombolytic combined vascular interventional therapy. 75 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of(More)