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The role of caspase-3 in photoreceptor degeneration was examined in a line of transgenic rats that carry a rhodopsin mutation S334ter. Photoreceptor degeneration in these animals is rapid. It is detected as early as postnatal day (PD) 8, and by PD 20, only one of the original 12 rows of nuclei remain in the outer nuclear layer. At PD 11 and 12, the number(More)
We report the results of molecular analysis of 39 isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum from human and bovine sources in nine human outbreaks and from bovine sources from a wide geographic distribution. All 39 isolates could be divided into either of two genotypes, on the basis of genetic polymorphism observed at the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein(More)
Humans vary in acuity to many odors [1-4], with variation within olfactory receptor (OR) genes contributing to these differences [5-9]. How such variation also affects odor experience and food selection remains uncertain [10], given that such effects occur for taste [11-15]. Here we investigate β-ionone, which shows extreme sensitivity differences [4, 16,(More)
Humans vary in their ability to smell numerous odors [1-3], including those associated with food [4-6]. Odor sensitivity is heritable [7-11], with examples linking genetic variation for sensitivity to specific odors typically located near olfactory receptor (OR) genes [12-16]. However, with thousands of aromas and few deorphaned ORs [17, 18], there has been(More)
This study aims to investigate the developmental effects of atypical antipsychotics on infants who were born to mothers taking an atypical antipsychotic throughout pregnancy. The developmental progress of 76 infants who experienced fetal exposure to atypical antipsychotics was compared to that of 76 matched control infants who had no fetal exposure to any(More)
Anticancer potential of metformin has been extensively studied. However, its anticancer clinical use remains yet to be approved since sufficient concentration on target organs could not be achieved via conventional administration. To overcome this drawback, we aim to examine the efficiency of novel intravesical treatment of metformin on syngeneic orthotopic(More)
Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) can image the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer and measurement the thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to validate the diagnostic power of vertical thickness profiles of the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer imaged by UHR-OCT in the diagnosis of sub-clinical keratoconus (KC). Each(More)
EGFR is a potential therapeutic target for treating bladder cancer, but has not been approved for clinical use yet. Metformin is a widely used antidiabetic drug and has demonstrated interesting anticancer effects on various cancer models, alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. The efficacy of gefitinib, a well-known EGFR tyrosine kinase(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the developmental effects of clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics on infants who were exposed to as fetus. METHOD The developmental progress of 33 infants who were exposed to clozapine as fetus was compared to 30 infants who were exposed to risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine as fetus by assessing Apgar scoring, birth(More)
PURPOSE To determine the impact of flap creation methods for sub-Bowman's keratomileusis (SBK) on central Bowman's layer thickness. METHODS SBK flaps were made by Moria microkeratome for 20 subjects and by femtosecond (FEMTO) laser for 21 subjects. Corneal sublayer thicknesses were measured by ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography before SBK(More)