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Echinococcus multilocularis, a tapeworm causing alveolar echinococcosis which is considered a serious zoonosis known to affect humans, appears to be expanding its geographical range in Europe. We studied the emergence of the parasite in the European westernmost edge of its geographical distribution, based on two consecutive parasitological examinations of(More)
The human nasopharynx is the main reservoir for Streptococcus pneumoniae. We applied conventional and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization in adults. Paired trans-orally and trans-nasally obtained nasopharyngeal samples from 268 parents of 24-month-old children were assessed for pneumococcal presence.(More)
Incidence of pneumococcal disease is disproportionally high in infants and elderly. Nasopharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for disease but unlike in children, carriage in elderly is rarely detected. Here, we tested for S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and saliva samples collected from community-dwelling elderly(More)
While nasopharyngeal sampling is the gold standard for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, historically seen, saliva sampling also seems highly sensitive for pneumococcal detection. We investigated S. pneumoniae carriage in saliva from fifty schoolchildren by conventional and molecular methods. Saliva was first culture-enriched for(More)
Studies of past emergency events indicate that evacuating occupants often exhibit 6 social behaviors that affect the evacuation process. This paper describes a multi-agent based 7 simulation tool which enables the modeling of social behaviors during evacuation. In this 8 modeling framework, each agent has a three-level representation that allows users to(More)
Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants' behaviors, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the evacuation. Occupants' social characteristics and the unique layout of the buildings should be considered to ensure that the egress systems can handle the actual occupants' behaviors in egress. This(More)
BACKGROUND High cost and varying sensitivity for non-B HIV-1 subtypes limits application of current commercial kits for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping of all major HIV-1 group-M subtypes. OBJECTIVES Our research aimed to develop and validate an assay specific for all major HIV-1 group-M subtypes for use as an alternative to commercial assays for HIV-1(More)
Emergency evacuation (egress) design and planning are important aspects in building and facility engineering. Studies of past emergency events indicate that evacuating occupants often exhibit social behaviors during the evacuation process. Such behaviors are often shaped by pre-existing social relationships and influenced by perceived information. This(More)