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Studies of past emergency events indicate that evacuating occupants often exhibit 6 social behaviors that affect the evacuation process. This paper describes a multi-agent based 7 simulation tool which enables the modeling of social behaviors during evacuation. In this 8 modeling framework, each agent has a three-level representation that allows users to(More)
Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants' behaviors, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the evacuation. Occupants' social characteristics and the unique layout of the buildings should be considered to ensure that the egress systems can handle the actual occupants' behaviors in egress. This(More)
Emergency evacuation (egress) design and planning are important aspects in building and facility engineering. Studies of past emergency events indicate that evacuating occupants often exhibit social behaviors during the evacuation process. Such behaviors are often shaped by pre-existing social relationships and influenced by perceived information. This(More)
Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants’ behaviors, egress signage system, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the building evacuation. In addition to complying with code and standards, building designers need to consider the occupants’ social characteristics and the unique layout of the(More)
3 Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants' behaviors, local geometry, and 4 environmental constraints affect crowd movement and evacuation. Design of egress systems should take 5 into consideration the social characteristics of the occupants and the unique layout of the buildings. This 6 paper describes an agent-based egress simulation(More)
Building occupants perceive information about the surrounding environment and navigate for safety during emergency evacuation (egress). They often choose their actions by interacting with their social groups and observing the actions of the surrounding crowd. Most egress simulators, however, ignore individuals' crowd perceptions and social interactions.(More)
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