Mei Ling Chu

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Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants’ behaviors, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the evacuation. Occupants’ social characteristics and the unique layout of the buildings should be considered to ensure that the egress systems can handle the actual occupants’ behaviors in egress. This(More)
Incidence of pneumococcal disease is disproportionally high in infants and elderly. Nasopharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for disease but unlike in children, carriage in elderly is rarely detected. Here, we tested for S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and saliva samples collected from community-dwelling elderly(More)
The human nasopharynx is the main reservoir for Streptococcus pneumoniae. We applied conventional and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization in adults. Paired trans-orally and trans-nasally obtained nasopharyngeal samples from 268 parents of 24-month-old children were assessed for pneumococcal presence.(More)
While nasopharyngeal sampling is the gold standard for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, historically seen, saliva sampling also seems highly sensitive for pneumococcal detection. We investigated S. pneumoniae carriage in saliva from fifty schoolchildren by conventional and molecular methods. Saliva was first culture-enriched for(More)
BACKGROUND High cost and varying sensitivity for non-B HIV-1 subtypes limits application of current commercial kits for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping of all major HIV-1 group-M subtypes. OBJECTIVES Our research aimed to develop and validate an assay specific for all major HIV-1 group-M subtypes for use as an alternative to commercial assays for HIV-1(More)
Building occupants perceive information about the surrounding environment and navigate for safety during emergency evacuation (egress). They often choose their actions by interacting with their social groups and observing the actions of the surrounding crowd. Most egress simulators, however, ignore individuals’ crowd perceptions and social interactions.(More)
Studies of past emergency events have revealed that occupants’ behaviors, egress signage system, local geometry, and environmental constraints affect crowd movement and govern the building evacuation. In addition to complying with code and standards, building designers need to consider the occupants’ social characteristics and the unique layout of the(More)