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To determine the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance in bacterial pathogens causing nosocomial infections, surveillance data on nosocomial infections documented from 1981 to 1999 at National Taiwan University Hospital were analyzed. During this period, 35,580 bacterial pathogens causing nosocomial infections were identified. Candida species(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory immune response directed against myelin antigens of the central nervous system. In its murine model, EAE, Th17 cells play an important role in disease pathogenesis. These cells can induce blood-brain barrier disruption and CNS immune cells activation, due to the capacity to(More)
The higher systemic clearance of some CYP3A4 [whether also P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] drug substrates in women versus men is attributed in part to a higher hepatic CYP3A4 content in women. This, combined with the general paucity of reported sex differences in the apparent oral clearance of CYP3A4 substrates, suggested a sex-dependent expression of CYP3A4 in the(More)
Thirty-one cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred after exposure in the emergency room at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The index patient was linked to an outbreak at a nearby municipal hospital. Three clusters were identified over a 3-week period. The first cluster (5 patients) and the second cluster (14 patients) occurred(More)
BACKGROUND Chlorhexidine has been widely used for hand hygiene to prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, data on longitudinal surveillance of the susceptibility of MRSA isolates to chlorhexidine are limited. METHODS A total of 240 nosocomial MRSA isolates obtained in 1990, 1995,(More)
Highly variable (HV) drugs are defined as those for which within-subject variability (%CV) in bioequivalence (BE) measures is 30% or greater. Because of this high variability, studies designed to show whether generic HV drugs are bioequivalent to their corresponding HV reference drugs may need to enroll large numbers of subjects even when the products have(More)
To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and(More)
One of the major goals for the immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases is the induction of regulatory T cells that mediate immunologic tolerance. Parenteral administration of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is an approved therapy for transplantation in humans and is effective in autoimmune diabetes. We have found that oral administration of anti-CD3 monoclonal(More)
Historically, regulatory assessment of bioequivalence (BE) has relied upon the comparison of rate and extent of drug absorption between products (1). For drugs intended to be absorbed and systemically delivered to the site(s) of activity, this is generally achieved by measuring drug concentrations in an accessible biological fluid such as blood plasma.(More)
The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization or infection in the hospital setting has increased globally. Many previous studies had analysed the risk factors for acquiring VRE, based on cross-sectional studies or prevalent cases. However, the actual incidence of and risk factors for VRE remain unclear. The present study was(More)