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Seismic data from central Tibet have been combined to image the subsurface structure and understand the evolution of the collision of India and Eurasia. The 410- and 660-kilometer mantle discontinuities are sharply defined, implying a lack of a subducting slab beneath the plateau. The discontinuities appear slightly deeper beneath northern Tibet, implying(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a permanent neurological disability, and no satisfactory treatment is currently available. After SCI, pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) is known to play a pivotal role in apoptosis of oligodendrocytes, but the cell types producing proNGF and the signaling pathways involved in proNGF production are primarily unknown. Here, we(More)
Activation of c-fos, an immediate early gene, and the subsequent expression of the Fos protein have been noted following focal cerebral ischemia. Fos and Jun form a heterodimer as activator protein 1 (AP-1), which transregulates the expression of several genes. To study the postischemic events related to c-fos expression, we suppressed the expression of(More)
In the present study, we found that nestin-expressing spheroid cells derived from multipotent adipose stem cells of subcutaneous fat tissue could efficiently differentiate into Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro based on expression of SC markers such as A2B5, GFAP, O4, p75, S100, Sox10, Krox-20, and L1. The induced SC is engrafted to spinal cord injury lesions(More)
We studied the formation of the Himalayan mountain range and the Tibetan Plateau by investigating their lithospheric structure. Using an 800-kilometer-long, densely spaced seismic array, we have constructed an image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Himalayas and the southern Tibetan Plateau. The image reveals in a continuous fashion the Main(More)
Protein oligomerization serves an important function in biological processes, yet solving structures of protein oligomers has always been a challenge. For solution NMR, the challenge arises both from the increased size of these systems and, in the case of homo-oligomers, from ambiguities in assignment of intra- as opposed to intersubunit NOEs. In this(More)
The proteasome system is a proteolytic pathway that regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation. Recently, an association of a functional sequence variation, -8C/G, in the human proteasome subunit a type 6 gene (PSMA6) with the susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) was reported. After that, several validation studies have been(More)
The ability to identify and isolate lineage-specific stem cells from adult tissues could facilitate cell replacement therapy. Leydig cells (LCs) are the primary source of androgen in the mammalian testis, and the prospective identification of stem Leydig cells (SLCs) may offer new opportunities for treating testosterone deficiency. Here, in a transgenic(More)
The pulsatile nature of GH release is apparently regulated by alternating sequential changes in two hypothalamic hormones, GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. Entrainment of this pulsatility appears to involve GH-mediated negative feedback. Recently a new receptor involved in GH release was cloned. Activation of this receptor by GH-releasing(More)
In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate decision-making, we describe a consensus 'what to try first' strategy based on our collective analysis of the expression and purification of over 10,000 different proteins. This review presents methods that(More)