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The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a(More)
Enterovirus B81 (EV-B81) is a newly identified serotype within the species enterovirus B (EV-B). To date, only eight nucleotide sequences of EV-B81 have been published and only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been made available in the GenBank database. Here, we report the full-length genome sequences of two EV-B81 strains(More)
A multi-service smart card system enables users to access different services over an open network with a single smart card. Due to its highly economic and social benefits, the multi-service smart card system has drawn much attention in industrial and academic areas. However, the big hindrance to its wide employment is the risk of breaching user service(More)
The M2 protein of influenza viruses forms an acid-activated tetrameric proton channel. We used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the structure and functional dynamics of the pH-sensing and proton-selective histidine-37 in M2 bound to a cholesterol-containing virus-envelope-mimetic membrane so as to better understand the proton(More)
As an important means to control the complexity of software systems, to improve software quality and to support software development and software reuse, software architecture has become a mainstream research field in the software engineering community. Now, software architecture research not only focuses on the design phase, but also covers every phase of(More)
The M2 protein of influenza A virus is a membrane-spanning tetrameric proton channel targeted by the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine. Resistance to these drugs has compromised their effectiveness against many influenza strains, including pandemic H1N1. A recent crystal structure of M2(22-46) showed electron densities attributed to a single(More)
The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) neuromuscular system is a highly conserved and well-studied model of sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system. Sexual differentiation of the SNB is currently thought to be mediated by the direct action of perinatal testosterone on androgen receptors (ARs) in the bulbocavernosus/levator ani(More)
Many membrane-active peptides, such as cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), conduct their biological functions by interacting with the cell membrane. The interactions of charged residues with lipids and water facilitate membrane insertion, translocation or disruption of these highly hydrophobic species. In this(More)