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The role of plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in plants under drought stress (DS) is crucial in modulating physiological responses that eventually lead to adaptation to an unfavorable environment; however, the role of this hormone in modulation of glycinebetaine (GB) metabolism in maize particularly at the seedling stage is still poorly understood. Some(More)
Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used for treating carcinomas. Patients receiving paclitaxel often develop neuropathic pain and have a reduced quality of life which hinders the use of this life-saving drug. In this study, we determined the role of GABA transporters in the genesis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain using behavioral tests,(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a major consequence of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Several studies have reported the neuroprotection of pinocembrin on cerebral ischemia in vivo and in vitro, but the effects of pinocembrin on BBB and its underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of pinocembrin on BBB functions(More)
Pinocembrin is one of the flavonoids at the highest concentration in propolis. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of pinocembrin on ischemia/reperfusion and ischemia/reperfusion-like insults. Protection by pinocembrin was studied at the in vivo level using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats.(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is known to play a vital role in mediating ischemic reperfusion damage in brain. Our previous studies showed that pinocembrin alleviated cerebral ischemic injury in ischemia/reperfusion and vascular dementia animal models, but whether attenuation of ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the mechanisms remains to(More)
This study investigated the effects of baicalein, a natural compound isolated from the root of scutellaria, on cognitive and motor ability impaired by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats, as well as its effects on brain mitochondria. Rats subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion experienced cognitive deficits, oxidative stress and(More)
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) is a crucial mechanism underlying the development and maintenance of pain. Traditionally, the role of NMDARs in the pathogenesis of pain is ascribed to their activation and signalling cascades in postsynaptic neurons. In this study, we determined if presynaptic NMDARs in the primary afferent(More)
Dysfunctional glial glutamate transporters and over production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1β, IL-1β) are two prominent mechanisms by which glial cells enhance neuronal activities in the spinal dorsal horn in neuropathic pain conditions. Endogenous molecules regulating production of IL-1β and glial glutamate functions remain poorly(More)
Excessive activation of glutamate receptors in spinal dorsal horn neurons is a key mechanism leading to abnormal neuronal activation in pathological pain conditions. Previous studies have shown that activation of glutamate receptors in the spinal dorsal horn is enhanced by impaired glial glutamate transporter functions and proinflammatory cytokines(More)
The Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellites measures the atmospheric temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere under all weather conditions, excluding precipitation. Although designed primarily for monitoring weather processes, the MSU observations have been extensively(More)