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BACKGROUND Echinacea is a widely available over-the-counter herbal remedy. Tinctures of echinacea have been shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vitro. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on CYP activity in vivo was assessed by use of the CYP probe drugs caffeine (CYP1A2), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam(More)
Cytology and histology records and cervical samples for HPV assay were obtained from a prospective cohort of 49 655 women attending clinics for routine cervical cytology in or near Manchester between 1988 and 1993. The women were followed up for cytological abnormality and neoplasia through the cytology laboratory's records. HPV at entry was assayed in an(More)
Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been associated inconsistently with cardiovascular diseases. A maldistribution of eNOS variants among ethnic groups may explain interethnic differences in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation and response to drugs. To test this possibility, we examined the distribution of genetic(More)
The measurement of insulin Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is estimated to affect 100 million people worldwide. It has been observed to increase in prevalence when a population increases its plane of nutrition and decreases its energy expenditure. A striking example of this occurred when Ethiopian Jews were moved to Israel [l]. The Pacific(More)
OBJECTIVES Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of(More)
Recent epidemiological studies in people whose birth weights were recorded many years ago suggest links between impaired growth during early life and the development of diseases, including diabetes, much later in life. The long-term effects of retarded early growth are proposed to result from malnutrition at critical periods of fetal or infant development(More)
To evaluate the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening. This was a cross-sectional study from the recruitment phase of a prospective randomised trial. Women were screened for HPV in addition to routine cervical cytology testing. Greater Manchester, attendees at routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In all, 24(More)
BACKGROUND Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the primary cause of almost all cervical cancers. HPV testing of cervical smears is more sensitive but less specific than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). HPV testing as a primary screening approach requires efficient management of HPV-positive women with(More)
To distinguish risk factors for acquisition of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection from the determinants of neoplasia among infected individuals we have conducted a three-arm case-control study nested within a large population-based cohort of women (the Manchester cohort) screened for HPV at entry using L1 consensus primer PCR. The study includes(More)