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Cytology and histology records and cervical samples for HPV assay were obtained from a prospective cohort of 49 655 women attending clinics for routine cervical cytology in or near Manchester between 1988 and 1993. The women were followed up for cytological abnormality and neoplasia through the cytology laboratory's records. HPV at entry was assayed in an(More)
BACKGROUND Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the primary cause of almost all cervical cancers. HPV testing of cervical smears is more sensitive but less specific than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). HPV testing as a primary screening approach requires efficient management of HPV-positive women with(More)
BACKGROUND Echinacea is a widely available over-the-counter herbal remedy. Tinctures of echinacea have been shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vitro. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on CYP activity in vivo was assessed by use of the CYP probe drugs caffeine (CYP1A2), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam(More)
Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been associated inconsistently with cardiovascular diseases. A maldistribution of eNOS variants among ethnic groups may explain interethnic differences in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation and response to drugs. To test this possibility, we examined the distribution of genetic(More)
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with canagliflozin decreases HbA1c, body weight, BP, and albuminuria, implying that canagliflozin confers renoprotection. We determined whether canagliflozin decreases albuminuria and reduces renal function decline independently of its glycemic effects in a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in 1450 patients(More)
We present data on the use of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) with different thresholds for positivity within a primary screening setting and as a method of triage for low-grade cytology. In the ARTISTIC population-based trial, 18,386 women were screened by cytology and for HPV. Cervical(More)
The measurement of insulin Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is estimated to affect 100 million people worldwide. It has been observed to increase in prevalence when a population increases its plane of nutrition and decreases its energy expenditure. A striking example of this occurred when Ethiopian Jews were moved to Israel [l]. The Pacific(More)
BACKGROUND The most specific indicator of a drug-induced liver injury signal in a clinical trial database is believed to be the occurrence of subjects experiencing drug-associated elevations in both serum ALT and serum total bilirubin (TB) without a significant elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). eDISH (evaluation of Drug-Induced Serious(More)
OBJECTIVE This study assessed the incidence of serious adverse events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes treated with canagliflozin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS All serious adverse events of DKA and related events (ketoacidosis, metabolic acidosis, and acidosis) from 17,596 patients from randomized studies of canagliflozin(More)
Maternal protein restriction is a model of fetal programming of adult glucose intolerance. Perfused livers of 48-h- starved adult offspring of rat dams fed 8% protein diets during pregnancy and lactation produced more glucose from 6 mM lactate than did control livers from rats whose dams were fed 20% protein. In control livers, a mean of 24% of the glucose(More)