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INTRODUCTION One-Step Nucleic acid Amplification (OSNA) is a molecular biological assay of cytokeratin-19 (a breast epithelial marker) mRNA. It can be employed intra-operatively for detection of lymph node metastases in breast carcinoma. Patients with positive sentinel nodes may proceed to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) level I or higher dependent(More)
INTRODUCTION The role of sentinel lymph node micrometastases on histopathological analysis is controversial in axillary staging and management in clinically node negative breast cancer. Long-term studies addressing the clinical relevance of occult breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes based on molecular analysis are lacking. One Step Nucleic Acid(More)
When encountered, a femoral hernia requires repair due to its propensity for incarceration with associated morbidity and mortality. Several operations have been described, including the low approach (Lockwood), the high approach (Lotheisen) and McEvedy’s preperitoneal approach. Recently, laparoscopic repair has also been advocated. The Nyhus–Condon repair,(More)
PURPOSE To elicit the views, experiences and preferences of women with clinically node negative breast cancer towards intra-operative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) analysis. METHODS Focus groups with 14 women with breast cancer from two UK centres; one group had undergone the standard practice of waiting two weeks for results of their axillary(More)
Thalassaemia or "thalassemia" is an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease. In thalassemia, the genetic defect results in reduced rate of synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. Reduced synthesis of one of the globin chains can cause the formation of abnormal hemoglobin molecules, thus causing anemia, the characteristic(More)
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