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AIM In this study, to clarify the SMAD4 blocking impact on fibrosis process, we investigated its down-regulation by shRNA on activated human LX-2 cell, in vitro. BACKGROUND Liver fibrosis is a critical consequence of chronic damage to the liver that can progress toward advanced diseases, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Different SMAD(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of dozens of clinical trials to establish effective therapeutic and/or preventive vaccine to resolve HCV infection, no real vaccine has been proved to date. Genetic vaccines based on replication-defective adenoviruses have proved to elicit strong and long lasting T-cell responses against a number of viral antigens and are even currently(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Hepatitis G virus/GB virus-C (HGV/GBV-C) is a newly identified member of the Flaviviridae family. Its clinical significance in chronic hepatitis C infection remains controversial. There is a geographical difference in the distribution of GBV-C in the world. The frequency of GBV-C infection among hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of GBV-C among Iranian HBV positive patients using PCR-RFLP technique. BACKGROUND GBV-C was a member of flaviviridae family and recently propose to classify as members of a fourth genus in this family, named Pegivirus and suggest that at least one quarter of the world's population has been(More)
BACKGROUND chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a multifactorial disease that can result in serious clinical complications. Host genetic background especially the genes that encode immunologic factors like INF-γ and its receptor (IFN-γ R) are critical in the pathogenesis of infection. OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-4 (IL-4), as the most prominent anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in modulating microglial activation and inflammatory responses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic inflammatory disorder. OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to develop a new recombinant Adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector that delivers IL-4 and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which have an important function in regulating RNA stability and gene expression. They also can circulate in a cell-free form in the blood thatmakes them potential disease markers. The liver contains various classes of miRNAs in which miR-122 accounts for about 70% of all miRNAs and it has been proved(More)
BACKGROUND Enteric viruses, particularly human rotavirus and norovirus, have been shown to replace bacteria and parasites, as the most common pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea. However, there are still few epidemiological data on the simultaneous occurrence of these viruses in Iran. In this regard, the aim of this study was to assess the useful(More)
BACKGROUND The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the etiologic agent of AIDS. The disease can be transmitted via blood in the window period prior to the development of antibodies to the disease. Thus, an appropriate method for the detection of HIV-1 during this window period is very important. OBJECTIVES This descriptive study proposes a sensitive,(More)
BACKGROUND Torque teno virus (TTV) was the first human Circoviridae detected in a Japanese patient with unknown hepatitis in 1997. Subsequently, several studies performed to evaluate different aspects of Torque teno virus pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES The present study aimed to determine dominant genotype of Torque teno virus in chronic hepatitis disease using(More)