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Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the success of programs to reduce HIV morbidity and mortality, particularly in countries with few treatment options. In the present study, genotype and phenotype data from ART-naïve and experienced hospitalized patients infected with HIV in Tehran, Iran were used to assess the prevalence and types of(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of dozens of clinical trials to establish effective therapeutic and/or preventive vaccine to resolve HCV infection, no real vaccine has been proved to date. Genetic vaccines based on replication-defective adenoviruses have proved to elicit strong and long lasting T-cell responses against a number of viral antigens and are even currently(More)
AIM In this study, to clarify the SMAD4 blocking impact on fibrosis process, we investigated its down-regulation by shRNA on activated human LX-2 cell, in vitro. BACKGROUND Liver fibrosis is a critical consequence of chronic damage to the liver that can progress toward advanced diseases, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Different SMAD(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Hepatitis G virus/GB virus-C (HGV/GBV-C) is a newly identified member of the Flaviviridae family. Its clinical significance in chronic hepatitis C infection remains controversial. There is a geographical difference in the distribution of GBV-C in the world. The frequency of GBV-C infection among hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of GBV-C among Iranian HBV positive patients using PCR-RFLP technique. BACKGROUND GBV-C was a member of flaviviridae family and recently propose to classify as members of a fourth genus in this family, named Pegivirus and suggest that at least one quarter of the world's population has been(More)
BACKGROUND chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a multifactorial disease that can result in serious clinical complications. Host genetic background especially the genes that encode immunologic factors like INF-γ and its receptor (IFN-γ R) are critical in the pathogenesis of infection. OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to investigate the(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which have an important function in regulating RNA stability and gene expression. They also can circulate in a cell-free form in the blood thatmakes them potential disease markers. The liver contains various classes of miRNAs in which miR-122 accounts for about 70% of all miRNAs and it has been proved(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-4 (IL-4), as the most prominent anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in modulating microglial activation and inflammatory responses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic inflammatory disorder. OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to develop a new recombinant Adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector that delivers IL-4 and(More)
OBJECTIVE The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. METHODS In this study, we(More)