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Diabetes during the pregnancy period impairs hippocampal development, and is associated with neurocognitive and neurobehavioral problems in the offspring. Synaptogenesis is one of the most important events in the development of the nervous system, and is known as a mechanism by which the memory process takes place. Synaptophysin (SYP) is an integral(More)
Spreading depression (SD) is pronounced depolarization of neurons and glia that travels slowly across brain tissue followed by massive redistribution of ions between intra- and extracellular compartments. There is a relationship between SD and some neurological disorders. In the present study the effects of repetitive SD on neuronal damage in cortical and(More)
BACKGROUND In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Health and partners accelerated malaria control from September 2003 onwards. The impact of the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), indoor-residual spraying (IRS) and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) combined on malaria burden was assessed at six out of seven in-patient health facilities. METHODS Numbers(More)
Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria programme financing over 2003 to 2009. Assessments used domestic malaria financing(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions.(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with the deficits in balance and motor coordination and altered social behaviors in offspring. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the cerebellar volume and morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex of rat neonates during the first two postnatal weeks.(More)
OBJECTIVES Turnip leaf has been used in folk medicine of Iran for the treatment of diabetes. However,so far no scientific study has been done to support its use in traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible hypoglycemic efficacy of aqueous extract of turnip leaf (AETL) in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes in pregnancy has a detrimental effect on central nervous system (CNS) development and is associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term neurocognitive impairment in the offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and also insulin treatment on the numerical density of apoptotic cells in rat(More)