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BACKGROUND The global number of incident cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in 2000 was estimated to be 272,906 (95% confidence interval [CI], 184,948-414,295). For accurate planning of TB control programs, this estimate and others have been revised using data from additional countries and by including in the model previously treated TB… (More)
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are 3 major global public health threats and cause substantial morbidity, mortality, negative socioeconomic impact, and human suffering. Despite the significant increase in financial support and recent progress in addressing these 3 diseases, important obstacles and unmet priorities remain. Disease-specific interventions… (More)
BACKGROUND In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Health and partners accelerated malaria control from September 2003 onwards. The impact of the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), indoor-residual spraying (IRS) and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) combined on malaria burden was assessed at six out of seven in-patient health facilities. METHODS Numbers… (More)
The World Health Assembly set targets to detect by 2005 at least 70% of all new sputum smear-positive cases arising each year and to cure at least 85% of these cases. The national tuberculosis (TB) control programmes of 199 countries reported that in 2005, 2.3 million new smear-positive cases were diagnosed under WHOs DOTS strategy, out of an estimated 3.9… (More)
Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria programme financing over 2003 to 2009. Assessments used domestic malaria financing… (More)
BACKGROUND The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions.… (More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps… (More)
BACKGROUND The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country… (More)
Background: Early diagnosis of major trauma and rapid transmission of patients to appropriate therapeutic centers have always been issues of concern. Several prognostic models for rapid clinical decision-making and estimating the mortality rate of multiple-trauma patients have been presented previously.
We give explicit formulas for the number of distinct elliptic curves over a finite field, up to isomorphism, in two families of curves introduced by C. Doche, T. Icart and D. R. Kohel.