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We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and finally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measurement space clustering, entropy, object attributes, spatial(More)
Here, we established a protocol for induction of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature cotyledons of open-pollinated seeds of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars ‘Osmanoğlu’ and ‘Sarıaşlama’. Basal media, Murashige and Skoog medium (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium (DKW), and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented(More)
Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated aminopropyl glass beads by using covalent binding method or sol-gel encapsulation procedure and improved considerably by fluoride-catalyzed hydrolysis of mixtures of RSi(OCH3)3 and Si(OCH3)4. The catalytic properties of the immobilized lipases were evaluated into model reactions, i.e.(More)
Three beta-cyclodextrin (polymers 1-3) and a starch-based (polymer 4) polymers were synthesized using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a cross-linking agent in dry dimethylformamide and used as a sorbent for the removal of some selected azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The cross-linked polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared(More)
Candida rugosa lipase was encapsulated within a chemically inert sol-gel support prepared by polycondensation with tetraethoxysilane and octyltriethoxysilane in the presence of β-cyclodextrin-based polymer. The catalytic activity of the encapsulated lipases was evaluated both in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylpalmitate and the enantioselective hydrolysis of(More)
In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six(More)
—In this work, we contribute to the real-time detection of buried objects, with special emphasis on explosive ones, using the ground penetrating radar (GPR). When the buried objects have explosive substance, the moment of detection becomes vital. Therefore, we start the detection process right after the very first GPR signals begin to return from the buried(More)
In this paper a novel multilevel thresholding method is proposed based on selecting the consistent peak of correlation function over the interested histogram region. The histogram is separated into two more regions up to the cost function is reached minimum. In the separation process of the histogram, a novel dichotomisation method is used. In general,(More)