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In the developing Drosophila retina, the proneural gene for photoreceptor neurons is atonal, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Using atonal as a marker for proneural maturation, we examine the stepwise resolution of proneural clusters during the initiation of ommatidial differentiation in the developing eye disc. In addition, evidence is(More)
The influential notion that the hippocampus supports associative memory by interacting with functionally distinct and distributed brain regions has not been directly tested in humans. We therefore used targeted noninvasive electromagnetic stimulation to modulate human cortical-hippocampal networks and tested effects of this manipulation on memory.(More)
Lithium and valproate are commonly used mood stabilizers, but their action pathways are not clearly understood. They also suffer from multiple toxic effects that limit their utility. Elucidating their action mechanisms could lead to newer agents and better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of bipolar disorder. We have expanded the study of signaling(More)
Major depression is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Even when the diagnosis is properly made, standard treatment approaches (eg, psychotherapy, medications, or their combination) are often inadequate to control acute symptoms or maintain initial benefit. Additional obstacles involve safety and tolerability problems, which frequently preclude an(More)
We describe a new molecular mechanism of cell death by excitotoxicity mediated through nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF kappa B) in rat embryonic cultures of dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of mesencephalic cultures with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) resulted in a number of changes that occurred selectively in(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Somatization disorder, a female predominant disorder, has been found with higher than expected prevalence in previous studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and might be responsible for some of the comorbidity and excessive health care resource use associated with IBS. The study's aim was to determine within a female IBS population(More)
This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA) add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic(More)
Many patients with psychiatric disorders are refractory to current treatments, prompting a search for novel therapies. Based on the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy, there is interest in developing other brain stimulation methods in psychiatry. Alternatives include vagal nerve stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain(More)
Reliable and valid assessment of abnormal speech patterns may enable earlier recognition of nonpsychotic disorders through characteristic speech patterns. This study sought to establish interrater reliability using a standardized guide for scoring. A scoring guide defining 27 elements (e.g., inappropriate self-reference, simple loss of goal,(More)
Cancer survivors have lingering cognitive problems, however the anatomical basis for these problems has yet to be fully elucidated. Clinical studies as well as animal models of chemotherapy have pinpointed cell and volume loss to the hippocampus, however, few studies have performed shape analysis of the hippocampus on cancer survivors. This study used(More)