Mehmet Bülent Sönmez

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Theoretical models of the neuroprogressive nature of bipolar disorder (BD) are based on the hypothesis that it is an accelerated aging disease, with the allostatic load playing a major role. Glucocorticoids, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins play important roles in BD. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions of(More)
Interest in energy drinks is increasing every day. Energy drink consumption is increasing proportionally. Users often utilize these drinks in order to enjoy, have fun and to increase performance and attention. However, consumption of the energy drinks sometimes may also cause adverse physical and psychological consequences. Unwanted physical results are in(More)
INTRODUCTION Interoceptive awareness (IA) is defined as an ability to accurately perceive interoceptive processes, which comprise receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals together with external stimuli. Interoceptive processes affect the motivated approach or avoidance behavior toward stimuli. Alcohol and other substances have effects on(More)
Orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, especially agouti-related protein (AgRP) and leptin, play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis in bipolar disorder. AgRP regulates energy metabolism by increasing appetite and decreasing energy expenditure. The resting energy expenditures of patients with manic bipolar disorder are higher than those(More)
Pregabalin is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog used for the treatment of partial epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder. As a GABA analog, there has been some concern about its abuse liability. The number of case reports on the abuse potential of pregabalin has increased (1,2,3,4). To our knowledge, this is the(More)
INTRODUCTION Alcohol and psychoactive substance use and their effects are an important issue among adolescents and young adults. Different results have been reported about the frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among university students in studies conducted both in Turkey and in different places worldwide. METHODS The frequency of alcohol(More)
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