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Although Hox gene expression has been linked to motoneuron identity, a role of these genes in development of the spinal sensory system remained undocumented. Hoxb genes are expressed at high levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Hoxb8 null mutants manifest a striking phenotype of excessive grooming and hairless lesions on the lower back. Applying(More)
The inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine play an important role in modulating pain transmission, both in normal and in pathological situations. In the present study we have combined in situ hybridization for identifying spinal neurons that use the transmitter(s) glycine and/or GABA (Gly/GABA neurons) with immunohistochemistry for c-fos, a marker for(More)
The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury(More)
Glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) mRNA is exclusively expressed in glycinergic neurons, and is presently considered a reliable marker for glycinergic neuronal somata. In this study, we have performed non-radioactive in situ hybridization to localize GlyT2 mRNA in fixed free-floating sections of cervical (C2 and C6), thoracic (T5), lumbar (L2 and L5) and sacral(More)
Motor neuron degeneration and skeletal muscle denervation are hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but other neuron populations and glial cells are also involved in ALS pathogenesis. We examined changes in inhibitory interneurons in spinal cords of the ALS model low-copy Gurney G93A-SOD1 (G1del) mice and found reduced expression of markers of(More)
BACKGROUND In pain processing, long term synaptic changes play an important role, especially during chronic pain. The immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 has been widely implicated in mediating long-term plasticity in telencephalic regions, such as the hippocampus and cortex. Accordingly, Arc/Arg3.1 knockout (KO) mice show a deficit in long-term memory(More)
Nerve injury may cause neuropathic pain, which involves hyperexcitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The mechanisms of action of spinal cord stimulation (SCS), an established treatment for intractable neuropathic pain, are only partially understood. We used Autofluorescent Flavoprotein Imaging (AFI) to study changes in spinal dorsal horn metabolic(More)
The ventromedial medulla (VM), subdivided in a rostral (RVM) and a caudal (CVM) part, has a powerful influence on the spinal cord. In this study, we have identified the distribution of glycine and GABA containing neurons in the VM with projections to the cervical spinal cord, the lumbar dorsal horn, and the lumbar ventral horn. For this purpose, we have(More)
Nerve endings in the epidermis, termed nociceptors, conduct information on noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The precise role of epidermal nerve fibers in neuropathic pain is however still controversial. Here, we have investigated the re-innervation patterns of epidermal and dermal nerve fibers in a rat neuropathic pain model. After applying(More)
There is increasing evidence that pain transmission on one side of the body is influenced by a painful state on the other side. We have investigated this phenomenon by studying the activation pattern (using C-fos labeling) of spinal glycinergic and GABAergic (Gly/GABA) neurons after capsaicin injection in the ipsilateral hind paw of rats that were(More)