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BACKGROUND Classical cytogenetic methods and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) have been employed for the analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in human oocytes. However, these methods are limited by the need to spread the sample on a microscope slide, a process that risks artefactual chromosome loss. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a(More)
Testicular biopsies from eight men with abnormal karyotypes have been examined for histological and cytogenetic evidence of disturbances of meiosis. Quantitative analysis of this material showed one, with a 13;14 Robertsonian translocation, to have apparently normal spermatogenesis. Three patients, one with a 47,XYY and two with 45,XY, inv 9 karyotypes, had(More)
OBJECTIVES Constitutional aneuploidy occurs in at least 5% of recognised pregnancies, with apparent preferential involvement of the X chromosome and the smaller autosomes. Molecular cytogenetic investigations of cleavage-stage embryos have revealed anomalies affecting all sizes of chromosomes. The aim was to investigate the variety of anomalies arising(More)
A cytogenetic survey of 756 resident, but otherwise unselected, mentally retarded patients in a Scottish hospital is reported. The karyotypes of all patients were examined using orcein-stained cells, and those found to be abnormal, other than those with standard trisomy 21, were further investigated using a banding technique. A total of 103 patients were(More)
A patient with Klinefelter's syndrome and a boy with XYY sex chromosomes were both found to have a pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. An unusual feature of the XYY patient was that he presented because of short stature and disturbed behaviour. A family study showed that the patients were related and that there was an excess of males in the pedigree.(More)
In parallel with enhancements in the technology of integrated circuits, transistors are implemented in silicon. Though the price is reduced; design is more complicated, which create the efficiency and power consumption. The reason why modern GDI-based circuit is the focus of attention is that in designing digital circuit, less power is required while more(More)