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The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and(More)
Cellulose, the major constituent of all plant materials and the most abundant organic molecule on the Earth, is a linear biopolymer of glucose molecules, connected by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose requires mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases (cellobiohydrolases), and β-glucosidases acting in a(More)
BACKGROUND Trichoderma reesei is a widely used industrial strain for cellulase production, but its low yield of β-glucosidase has prevented its industrial value. In the hydrolysis process of cellulolytic residues by T. reesei, a disaccharide known as cellobiose is produced and accumulates, which inhibits further cellulases production. This problem can be(More)
The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina, an industrial (hemi)cellulase producer, can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides. At present, the biology underlying cellulase hyperproduction of T. reesei, and the conditions for the enzyme induction, are not completely understood. In the current study, three different strains of T. reesei, including QM6a (wild-type),(More)
Xylitol, a naturally occurring five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from D-xylose, is currently in high demand by industries. Trichoderma reesei, a prolific industrial cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungus, is able to selectively use D-xylose from hemicelluloses for xylitol production. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic(More)
T. reesei is an efficient cellulase producer and biomass degrader. To improve xylitol production in Trichoderma reesei strains by genetic engineering, two approaches were used in this study. First, the presumptive D-xylulokinase gene in T. reesei (xyiH), which has high homology to known fungi D-xylulokinase genes, was silenced by transformation of T. reesei(More)
Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production(More)
A major problem in fermenting xylose in lignocellulosic substrates is the presence of glucose and mannose which inhibit xylose utilization. Previous studies showed that catabolite repression in some yeasts is associated with hexokinases and that deletion of one of these gene(s) could result in derepressed mutant strain(s). In this study, the hxk1 encoding(More)
The olfactory system of fish is sensitive to the toxic effects of low concentrations of contaminants. To investigate the effects of long-term metal exposure on olfaction in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens), fish from one clean (Geneva Lake) and two metal-contaminated lakes (Ramsey and Hannah lakes) were collected in and around the metal-mining district(More)
Hemicelluloses and lignin present in the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulping process can potentially be converted into value-added products such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, phenols and adhesives. However, the direct conversion of hemicelluloses and lignin of SL into value-added products is uneconomical(More)