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We hypothesized that estradiol (E2) serves as a neurotrophomodulatory substance for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons thought to be involved in learning and memory. Learning/memory was assessed using the two-way active avoidance paradigm and the Morris water task. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX for 3 weeks, followed by(More)
Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as(More)
Males have a higher risk for developing Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism after ischemic stroke than females. Although estrogens have been shown to play a neuroprotective role in Parkinson's disease, there is little information on androgens' actions on dopamine neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of androgens under conditions of oxidative(More)
The modulation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C is complex and involves effects on both ion channel function and receptor trafficking. Although PKC regulates receptor cell surface expression the mechanism is not well understood. Using immunofluorescence studies in HEK 293 cells, we demonstrate that activation of PKC by the phorbol ester PMA promotes(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose etiology is presently unknown. Probably the most consistent and widespread deficit seen in this syndrome is that of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. We have previously demonstrated that estradiol (E2) modulates the function of these neurons and plays a role in their(More)
Early surgical repair of rotator cuff tears with a partial anterior acromionectomy is recommended as a means of minimizing a progression of symptoms and findings. It was more important to achieve adequate tension in the cuff tissues than to obtain a water-tight closure. Even patients with old complete tears may obtain good results from reconstruction of the(More)
Estrogens are gonadal steroid hormones that are present in the circulation of both males and females and that can no longer be considered within the strict confines of reproductive function. In fact, the bone, the cardiovascular system, and extrahypothalamic regions of the brain are now well-established targets of estrogens. Among the numerous aspects of(More)
Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD),(More)
The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important(More)
Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are known to exert their effects through the activation of intracellular receptors that regulate the transcription of target genes. Alternatively, nongenomic mechanisms, including the activation of such signaling pathways as the MAPK pathways, have been described. It is unclear, however, whether this latter(More)