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We hypothesized that estradiol (E2) serves as a neurotrophomodulatory substance for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons thought to be involved in learning and memory. Learning/memory was assessed using the two-way active avoidance paradigm and the Morris water task. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX for 3 weeks, followed by(More)
Males have a higher risk for developing Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism after ischemic stroke than females. Although estrogens have been shown to play a neuroprotective role in Parkinson's disease, there is little information on androgens' actions on dopamine neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of androgens under conditions of oxidative(More)
Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as(More)
The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important(More)
Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are known to exert their effects through the activation of intracellular receptors that regulate the transcription of target genes. Alternatively, nongenomic mechanisms, including the activation of such signaling pathways as the MAPK pathways, have been described. It is unclear, however, whether this latter(More)
In the central nervous system, androgens can exert either protective or damage-promoting effects. For example, testosterone protects neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity, whereas in other studies, testosterone exacerbated stroke-induced lesion size. The mechanism underlying this duality of androgens is still unclear. Recently, our laboratory reported that(More)
Whereas hormone therapy is used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, its efficacy in helping reduce the risk of other diseases such as Alzheimer's disease has been questioned in view of the results of recent clinical trials that appeared inconsistent with numerous basic research studies that supported the beneficial effects of hormones. One possible(More)
The modulation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C is complex and involves effects on both ion channel function and receptor trafficking. Although PKC regulates receptor cell surface expression the mechanism is not well understood. Using immunofluorescence studies in HEK 293 cells, we demonstrate that activation of PKC by the phorbol ester PMA promotes(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose etiology is presently unknown. Probably the most consistent and widespread deficit seen in this syndrome is that of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. We have previously demonstrated that estradiol (E2) modulates the function of these neurons and plays a role in their(More)
Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD),(More)