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We have shown that estrogen elicits a selective enhancement of the growth and differentiation of axons and dendrites (neurites) in the developing CNS. We subsequently demonstrated widespread colocalization of estrogen and neurotrophin receptors (trk) within developing forebrain neurons and reciprocal transcriptional regulation of these receptors by their(More)
We hypothesized that estradiol (E2) serves as a neurotrophomodulatory substance for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons thought to be involved in learning and memory. Learning/memory was assessed using the two-way active avoidance paradigm and the Morris water task. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX for 3 weeks, followed by(More)
Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as(More)
Estrogen elicits a selective enhancement of the growth and differentiation of axons and dendrites (neurites) in the developing brain. Widespread colocalization of estrogen and neurotrophin receptors (trk) within estrogen and neurotrophin targets, including neurons of the cerebral cortex, sensory ganglia, and PC12 cells, has been shown to result in(More)
We have shown previously in the developing cerebral cortex that estrogen elicits the rapid and sustained activation of multiple signaling proteins within the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, including B-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene-disrupted (ERKO) mice, we addressed the role of(More)
The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important(More)
The modulation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C is complex and involves effects on both ion channel function and receptor trafficking. Although PKC regulates receptor cell surface expression the mechanism is not well understood. Using immunofluorescence studies in HEK 293 cells, we demonstrate that activation of PKC by the phorbol ester PMA promotes(More)
We showed previously in neocortical explants, derived from developing wild-type and estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene-disrupted (ERKO) mice, that both 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol elicit the rapid and sustained phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2.(More)
Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD),(More)
This review is intended to assess the state of current knowledge on the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the neuroprotective effects of estrogens in models for acute neuronal injury and death. We evaluate the overall evidence that estrogens are neuroprotective in acute injury and critically assess the role of ERα, ERβ, GPR 30, and nonreceptor-mediated(More)