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We have shown that estrogen elicits a selective enhancement of the growth and differentiation of axons and dendrites (neurites) in the developing CNS. We subsequently demonstrated widespread colocalization of estrogen and neurotrophin receptors (trk) within developing forebrain neurons and reciprocal transcriptional regulation of these receptors by their(More)
Estrogen elicits a selective enhancement of the growth and differentiation of axons and dendrites (neurites) in the developing brain. Widespread colocalization of estrogen and neurotrophin receptors (trk) within estrogen and neurotrophin targets, including neurons of the cerebral cortex, sensory ganglia, and PC12 cells, has been shown to result in(More)
We have shown previously in the developing cerebral cortex that estrogen elicits the rapid and sustained activation of multiple signaling proteins within the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, including B-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene-disrupted (ERKO) mice, we addressed the role of(More)
OBJECTIVE Generalized disruption of arterial wall morphological changes in patients harboring cerebral aneurysms has been documented; however, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these changes. To explore the role of the elastolytic gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), levels of this enzyme in the wall of intracranial aneurysms were(More)
We showed previously in neocortical explants, derived from developing wild-type and estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene-disrupted (ERKO) mice, that both 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol elicit the rapid and sustained phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2.(More)
Estrogen profoundly affects the organization of the nervous system. Its receptor, a nuclear transcription factor, is widely expressed in the developing forebrain. Earlier work established that forebrain estrogen target neurons coexpress nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors and receptor mRNA. The present study examined the regulation of forebrain estrogen(More)
Our laboratory showed previously that estrogen activates ERK in neocortical cultures. To further elucidate the precise signaling sequelae that lead to estrogen-induced ERK activity, we evaluated the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC). We found that neocortical explants expressed primarily PKC gamma and PKC epsilon. Consistent with the involvement of PKC(More)
Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to identify the cells within organotypic slice cultures of the developing mouse cerebral cortex that respond to estradiol treatment by phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2. Estrogen-responsive cells resembled neurons morphologically and expressed the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2B. The intracellular(More)
A novel organotypic culture method of mouse retina explants is being introduced and characterized to evaluate its usefulness in studying glutamate excitotoxicity. Retinal whole-mounts were dissected from eyes of C57BL/6 mice aged P10-14 and transferred to poly-D-lysine/laminin coated round coverslips. After 7 days in vitro, retina explants were treated with(More)
Progesterone (P4) is a steroid hormone that plays multiple roles in the central nervous system (CNS) including promoting neuroprotection. However, the precise mechanisms involved in its neuroprotective effects are still unknown. Given that the regulation of the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration is critical for cell survival, we determined if(More)