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OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of microscopic tumor at the margins on local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery for invasive carcinoma. DESIGN Retrospective review of patients treated with surgical resection followed by radiation therapy. SETTING A university-based radiation department and a community-based cancer referral center. PATIENTS A(More)
Randomized studies of stage I and II breast cancer have shown that breast conservation treatment is equivalent to modified radical mastectomy in regard to local-regional control and survival. Little has been published on breast conservation for patients with large tumors. We analyzed 68 patients with tumors measuring 4 cm or larger (range, 4 to 12 cm)(More)
Variation in software requirements, technological upgrade and occurrence of defects necessitate change in software for its effective use. Early detection of those classes of a software which are prone to change is critical for software developers and project managers as it can aid in efficient resource allocation of limited resources. Moreover, change prone(More)
Software change prediction is crucial in order to efficiently plan resource allocation during testing and maintenance phases of a software. Moreover, correct identification of change-prone classes in the early phases of software development life cycle helps in developing cost-effective, good quality and maintainable software. An effective software change(More)
Counseling training in graduate programs continues to be underrepresented. If parental queries are not addressed adequately, they keep visiting one doctor after another. Objective. The aim of the study is to identify maternal needs of children with hearing impairment at two stages of habilitation, that is, just after diagnosis (group I) and after receiving(More)
Change in a software is crucial to incorporate defect correction and continuous evolution of requirements and technology. Thus, development of quality models to predict the change proneness attribute of a software is important to effectively utilize and plan the finite resources during maintenance and testing phase of a software. In the current scenario, a(More)
Software metrics help in determining the quality of a software product. They can be used for continuous inspection of a software to assist software developers in improving its quality. We can also use metrics to develop quality models which predict important quality attributes like change proneness. Determination of change prone classes in an(More)
Development of software change prediction models, based on the change histories of a software, are valuable for early identification of change prone classes. Classification of these change prone classes is vital to yield competent use of limited resources in an organization. This paper validates Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithms for development of(More)