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Dexamethasone is a key front-line chemotherapeutic for B-cell malignant multiple myeloma (MM). Dexamethasone modulates MM cell survival signaling but fails to induce marked cytotoxicity when used as a monotherapy. We demonstrate here the mechanism behind this insufficient responsiveness of MM cells toward dexamethasone, revealing in MM a dramatic(More)
This study was designed to identify metalloproteinase determinants of macrophage migration and led to the specific hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10/stromelysin-2) facilitates macrophage migration. We first profiled expression of all MMPs in LPS-stimulated primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and Raw264.7 cells and found that(More)
NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor regulates a range of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, preventing further cellular injury by removing biochemical damage and renewing tissue. Here we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells possess greater constitutive nuclear levels of Nrf2 than normal control CD34(+) cells because of an(More)
Ibrutinib (previously known as PCI-32765) has recently shown encouraging clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) effecting cell death through inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). In this study we report for the first time that ibrutinib is cytotoxic to malignant plasma cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and furthermore(More)
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potentially useful and specific agents to regulate transcriptional control of many cellular genes. There is a real prospect that miRNA and other short-length RNA reagents could be useful in a therapeutic setting. Here we outline the control of miRNAs in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) subtype of human leukaemia, and ask(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a cytoplasmic protein found in all hematopoietic cell lineages except for T cells. BTK mediates signaling downstream of a number of receptors. Pharmacologic targeting of BTK using ibrutinib (previously PCI-32765) has recently shown encouraging clinical activity in a range of lymphoid malignancies. This study reports for the(More)
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a haematologic malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Over the last 10-15 y the introduction of the proteasome-inhibitor bortezomib has improved MM prognosis, however relapse due to bortezomib-resistance is inevitable and the disease, at present, remains incurable. To model(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in mRNAs encoding downstream target genes. A large variety of cellular processes, including differentiation, development, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, are dependent on miRNA-mediated suppression of gene expression for their regulation.(More)
Pharmacological targeting of BTK using ibrutinib has recently shown encouraging clinical activity in a range of lymphoid malignancies. Recently we reported that ibrutinib inhibits human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast proliferation and leukemic cell adhesion to the surrounding bone marrow stroma cells. Here we report that in human AML ibrutinib, in(More)
The introduction of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in 2003 significantly improved treatment of the B-cell malignancy MM (multiple myeloma). Relapse following bortezomib therapy is inevitable, however, and MM remains an incurable disease. In the present mini-review, we explore the mechanisms by which bortezomib resistance occurs in MM, including(More)