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Objective. This paper assessed the effectiveness of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on reducing two protein-bound uremic toxins, p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and indoxyl sulphate (IS). Methods. English language studies reporting serum, urinary, or fecal PCS and/or IS (or their precursors) following pre-, pro-, or synbiotic interventions (>1 day) in human adults were(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence suggests modulating the microbiota in the large bowel of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) through pre- and/probiotic supplementation may inhibit the development of key nephrovascular toxins. To date, quality intervention trials investigating this novel treatment in CKD are lacking. The aim of SYNERGY is to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND Global longitudinal strain (GLS) has emerged as a superior method for detecting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared to ejection fraction (EF) on the basis that it is less operator dependent and more reproducible. The 2-dimensional strain (2DS) method is easily measured and integrated into a standard echocardiogram. This study(More)
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