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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are nephro- and cardiovascular toxins, produced solely by the gut microbiota, which have pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. We undertook this study to investigate the associations between IS and PCS and both inflammation and oxidative stress in the chronic kidney(More)
BACKGROUND Global longitudinal strain (GLS) has emerged as a superior method for detecting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared to ejection fraction (EF) on the basis that it is less operator dependent and more reproducible. The 2-dimensional strain (2DS) method is easily measured and integrated into a standard echocardiogram. This study(More)
Objective. This paper assessed the effectiveness of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on reducing two protein-bound uremic toxins, p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and indoxyl sulphate (IS). Methods. English language studies reporting serum, urinary, or fecal PCS and/or IS (or their precursors) following pre-, pro-, or synbiotic interventions (>1 day) in human adults were(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The generation of key uremic nephrovascular toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), is attributed to the dysbiotic gut microbiota in CKD. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether synbiotic (pre- and probiotic) therapy alters the gut microbiota and reduces serum concentrations of microbiome-generated uremic(More)
INTRODUCTION The uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (pCS) are absorbed bacterial metabolites of tryptophan and tyrosine respectively and may be predictive of clinical outcome. Long chromatography times, incomplete data on the reference ranges of the free and total fractions and the biological variation limit wider clinical(More)
There is increasing clinical evidence that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a distinctly dysbiotic intestinal bacterial community, termed the gut microbiota, which in turn drives a cascade of metabolic abnormalities, including uremic toxin production, inflammation, and immunosuppression, that ultimately promotes progressive kidney failure and(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence suggests modulating the microbiota in the large bowel of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) through pre- and/probiotic supplementation may inhibit the development of key nephrovascular toxins. To date, quality intervention trials investigating this novel treatment in CKD are lacking. The aim of SYNERGY is to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence suggests that uremic toxins, in particular indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Despite a significant increase in IS and PCS in patients with established kidney damage, the effect of a nephrectomy in non-chronic kidney disease patients is not yet known.(More)
OBJECTIVE Phosphorus-based food additives may pose a significant risk in chronic kidney disease given the link between hyperphosphatemia and cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-based food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to establish how they were reported on food labels.(More)