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RATIONALE Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) produces anxiety-like and aversive effects when infused directly into the various regions of the brain, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). However, the CRF receptor subtypes within the BNST mediating these phenomena have not been established. OBJECTIVES We used selective CRF receptor(More)
BACKGROUND An increased level of extracellular glutamate is a key neurochemical feature associated with ethanol exposure and withdrawal. METHODS In the current study, extracellular levels of glutamate and glutamate transport in the nucleus accumbens were assayed 24 hr after repeated ethanol exposure (1 g/kg ip daily for 7 days) with use of in vivo(More)
Extinction of classically and instrumentally conditioned behaviors, such as conditioned fear and drug-seeking behavior, is a process of active learning, and recent studies indicate that potentiation of glutamatergic transmission facilitates extinction learning. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of the Type-5 metabotropic glutamate(More)
Adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus play a role in various forms of learning and memory. However, adult born neurons in the DG, while still at an immature stage, exhibit unique electrophysiological properties and are also functionally implicated in learning and memory processes. We investigated the effects of extinction of(More)
Unopposed angiotensin (Ang) II-mediated cellular effects may lead to progressive glomerulosclerosis. While Ang-II can be locally generated in the kidneys, we previously showed that glomerular podocytes primarily convert Ang-I, the precursor of Ang-II, to Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(2-10), peptides that have been independently implicated in biological actions(More)
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