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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial malformations, and heart and neural defects; the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) responsible for ethanol's teratogenicity remains unknown. Although the phenotype suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure perturbs neural crest cell development, direct proof that these cells(More)
The ability of both acute and chronic ethanol exposures to elicit cell death within specific embryonic and adult tissues is believed to partly underlie ethanol's pathogenicity; however, the mechanism underlying this cell death is unknown. This study partially characterized the mechanism of ethanol-induced neural crest cell death in a chick embryo model of(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the basis for ethanol's teratogenic effects may inform the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome. Here we investigate how genetic background and susceptibility to ethanol-induced neural crest apoptosis contribute to the distinctive craniofacial phenotype observed after prenatal alcohol exposure. METHODS Nine different chick strains(More)
BACKGROUND VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously(More)
Pregnancy-associated malaria is a severe clinical syndrome associated with the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta. Placental binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a member of the large and diverse P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane 1 (PfEMP1) protein family. To better understand if conserved regions in VAR2CSA can be(More)
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is characterized by growth retardation, mental deficiencies, and numerous craniofacial and neuronal anomalies; the type and severity of these defects may be related to the time and dose of maternal ethanol exposure. Ethanol administered during presomitic stages results in the typical FAS craniofacial phenotype and is accompanied(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancy associated malaria is a severe clinical syndrome associated with sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta. Placental binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, which adheres to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA). VAR2CSA is a large and polymorphic protein that has six Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains. There is still(More)
Unlike many localized infections, the development and resolution of bacteremia involves physical and immunological interactions between many anatomic sites. In an effort to better understand these interactions, we developed a computational model of bacteremia as a dynamical system fashioned after multicompartmental pharmacodynamic models, incorporating(More)
Inhalation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during their manufacture or incorporation into various commercial products may cause lung inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in exposed workers. Some workers may be more susceptible to these effects because of differences in their ability to synthesize the major antioxidant and immune system(More)