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To understand more about how the body recognizes alum we characterized the early innate and adaptive responses in mice injected with the adjuvant. Within hours of exposure, alum induces a type 2 innate response characterized by an influx of eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells and NKT cells. In addition, at least 13 cytokines and chemokines(More)
CD4 T cell help for B cells is critical for effective Ab responses. Although many of the molecules involved in helper functions of naive CD4 T cells have been characterized, much less is known about the helper capabilities of memory CD4 T cells, an important consideration for the design of vaccines that aim to prime protective memory CD4 T cells. In this(More)
Nedd4 family interacting protein-1 (Ndfip1) is a protein whose only known function is that it binds Nedd4, a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here we show that mice lacking Ndfip1 developed severe inflammation of the skin and lung and died prematurely. This condition was due to a defect in Ndfip1(-/-) T cells. Ndfip1(-/-) T cells were activated, and they(More)
Vaccines can greatly reduce the spread of and deaths from many infectious diseases. However, many infections have no successful vaccines. Better understanding of the generation of protective CD8 memory T cells by vaccination is essential for the rational design of new vaccines that aim to prime cellular immune responses. Here we demonstrate that the(More)
Nedd4 and Itch are E3 ubiquitin ligases that ubiquitinate similar targets in vitro and thus are thought to function similarly. T cells lacking Itch show spontaneous activation and T helper type 2 polarization. To test whether loss of Nedd4 affects T cells in the same way, we generated Nedd4(+/+) and Nedd4(-/-) fetal liver chimeras. Nedd4(-/-) T cells(More)
Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, and understanding T cell memory will be central to the development of effective cell-mediated vaccines. The characteristics and functions of CD4 memory cells have not been well defined. Here we demonstrate that the increased size of the secondary response is solely a consequence of the increased(More)
Memory T cells are thought to have several properties that distinguish them from their naïve precursors. They are found in parts of the body that rarely house naïve cells, they respond to antigen with faster proliferation and more rapid progression to effector function, they are less sensitive to the absence of their selecting major histocompatibility(More)
It has been recognized for nearly 80 years that insoluble aluminum salts are good immunologic adjuvants and that they form long-lived nodules in vivo. Nodule formation has long been presumed to be central for adjuvant activity by providing an antigen depot, but the composition and function of these nodules is poorly understood. We show here that aluminum(More)
Pressure sores are a common problem. They are casually accepted, their etiology is well defined, and treatment is standardized. How, therefore, can the subject justify reappraisal? On detailed review, evidence is presented showing that pressure sores can be minimized, that their pathophysiology is far from certain, and that their management is changing(More)