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BACKGROUND To further increase the efficacy of malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A, we tested the RTS,S antigen formulated using the AS01B Adjuvant System (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). METHODS In a double-blind, randomized trial, 102 healthy volunteers were evenly allocated to receive RTS,S/AS01B or RTS,S/AS02A vaccine at months 0, 1, and 2 of the study,(More)
During 1989-1999, 11 volunteers were immunized by the bites of 1001-2927 irradiated mosquitoes harboring infectious sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) strain NF54 or clone 3D7/NF54. Ten volunteers were first challenged by the bites of Pf-infected mosquitoes 2-9 weeks after the last immunization, and all were protected. A volunteer challenged 10 weeks(More)
BACKGROUND Immunization with RTS,S/AS02 consistently protects some vaccinees against malaria infection in experimental challenges and in field trials. A brief immunization schedule against falciparum malaria would be compatible with the Expanded Programme on Immunization, or in combination with other prevention measures, interrupt epidemic malaria or(More)
BACKGROUND Immunization with genetically engineered, attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) that arrest during liver infection confers sterile protection in mouse malaria models. A first generation Plasmodium falciparum GAP (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP) was previously generated by deletion of two pre-erythrocytic stage-expressed genes (P52 and P36) in the NF54 strain.(More)
Falciparum malaria is initiated when Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium sporozoite stage during a blood meal. Irradiated sporozoites confer sterile protection against subsequent malaria infection in animal models and humans. This level of protection is unmatched by current recombinant malaria vaccines. However, the live-attenuated vaccine approach(More)
The malaria sporozoite vaccine candidate RTS,S, formulated with an oil-in-water emulsion plus the immunostimulants monophosphoryl lipid A and the saponin derivative QS21 (vaccine 3), recently showed superior efficacy over two other experimental formulations. Immunized volunteers were followed to determine the duration of protective immune responses.(More)
BACKGROUND This Phase 1/2a study evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an experimental malaria vaccine comprised of the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) representing the 3D7 allele formulated with either the AS01B or AS02A Adjuvant Systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS After a preliminary safety(More)
After initial successful evaluation of the circumsporozoite-based vaccine RTS,S/SBAS2, developed by SmithKline Beecham Biologicals with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, protective efficacy of several regimens against Plasmodium falciparum challenge was determined. A controlled phase 1/2a study evaluated 1 or 2 standard doses of RTS,S/SBAS2 in 2(More)
Plasmodium falciparum Liver Stage Antigen 1 (LSA-1) is a pre-erythrocytic stage antigen. Our LSA-1 vaccine candidate is a recombinant protein with full-length C- and N-terminal flanking domains and two of the 17 amino acid repeats from the central repeat region termed "LSA-NRC." We describe the first Phase I/II study of this recombinant LSA-NRC protein(More)
Plasmodia infect the liver for about 7 days before subsequently infecting the blood. Present prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria employs agents that primarily kill blood stages and must be continued for 28 days after the last exposure. Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone) is a new antimalarial agent that is licensed in 35 countries as treatment(More)