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Chronic desynchronization between the mammalian circadian pacemaker and its external environment, such as that observed from shift work or jet lag, can lead to various long-term health consequences. The circadian clock can be reset by exposure to light, although the magnitude of such adjustments is modest. 5-HT modulates the effects of light, and 5-HT(1A)(More)
Circadian rhythms in the Syrian hamster can be markedly phase shifted by 3 h of wheel running or arousal stimulation during their usual daily rest period ("subjective day"). Continuous wheel running is predictive but not necessary for phase shifts of this "nonphotic" type; hamsters aroused by gentle handling without running can also show maximal shifts. By(More)
Müller glia with stem cell characteristics have been identified in the adult human eye, and although there is no evidence that they regenerate retina in vivo, they can be induced to grow and differentiate into retinal neurons in vitro. We differentiated human Müller stem cells into retinal ganglion cell (RGC) precursors by stimulation with fibroblast growth(More)
Daily feeding schedules can entrain circadian rhythms of food-anticipatory activity in mammals. The site of the circadian oscillators that drive food-entrained rhythms is unknown. Lateral hypothalamic (LH) neurons containing hypocretins (Hcrt1 and 2, also known as orexin A and B) regulate feeding, energy metabolism and arousal state, raising the possibility(More)
Müller glia possess stem cell characteristics that have been recognized to be responsible for the regeneration of injured retina in fish and amphibians. Although these cells are present in the adult human eye, they are not known to regenerate human retina in vivo. Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics (hMSCs) can acquire phenotypic and genotypic(More)
Much controversy has arisen on the nature and sources of stem cells in the adult human retina. Whilst ciliary epithelium has been thought to constitute a source of neural stem cells, a population of Müller glia in the neural retina has also been shown to exhibit neurogenic characteristics. This study aimed to compare the neurogenic and proliferative(More)
PURPOSE Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics (hMGSCs) can be induced to express genes and proteins of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) upon in vitro inhibition of Notch-1 activity. However, it is not known whether expression of these markers is accompanied by acquisition of RGC function. This study investigated whether hMGSCs that express RGC(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe an optimized surgical technique for feline vitrectomy which reduces bleeding and aids posterior gel clearance in order to facilitate stem cell delivery to the inner retina using cellular scaffolds. PROCEDURES Three-port pars plana vitrectomies were performed in six-specific pathogen-free domestic cats using an optimized surgical(More)
The anticonvulsant potencies (ED50) of alpha,alpha-diphenylsuccinimide, phenytoin, and phenobarbital were evaluated in mice by a standard maximal electroshock technique. Potencies were expressed in terms of intraperitoneal dosage and blood and brain concentrations. Overt neurotoxicity (TD50) was assessed by the rotorod method. These data were compared with(More)