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Human breast cancer is usually caused by genetic alterations of somatic cells of the breast, but occasionally, susceptibility to the disease is inherited. Mapping the genes responsible for inherited breast cancer may also allow the identification of early lesions that are critical for the development of breast cancer in the general population. Chromosome(More)
We provide genetic evidence supporting the identity of the candidate gene for BRCA1 through the characterization of germline mutations in 63 breast cancer patients and 10 ovarian cancer patients in ten families with cancer linked to chromosome 17q21. Nine different mutations were detected by screening BRCA1 DNA and RNA by single-strand conformation(More)
Targeting of newly synthesized integral membrane proteins to the appropriate cellular compartment is specified by discrete sequence elements, many of which have been well characterized. An understanding of the signals required to direct integral membrane proteins to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) remains a notable exception. Here we show that integral INM(More)
Over 100 distinct disease-associated mutations have been identified in the breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Loss of the wild-type allele in > 90% of tumors from patients with inherited BRCA1 mutations indicates tumor suppressive function. The low incidence of somatic mutations suggests that BRCA1 inactivation in sporadic tumors occurs by(More)
Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor, or ErbB, family of receptor tyrosine kinases have a single transmembrane (TM) alpha-helix that is usually assumed to play a passive role in ligand-induced dimerization and activation of the receptor. However, recent studies with the epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1) and the erythropoietin receptor have(More)
CONTEXT Previous studies of BRCA1 mutation prevalence have been based on high-risk groups, yielding estimates that do not reflect the experience of the general population of US patients with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine prevalence of known disease-related mutations and other variants in BRCA1 and how it differs by race, age at diagnosis, and(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), made by Fab1p, is essential for vesicle recycling from vacuole/lysosomal compartments and for protein sorting into multivesicular bodies. To isolate PtdIns(3,5)P2 effectors, we identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that display fab1delta-like vacuole enlargement, one of which lacked the(More)
DNA samples from 60 Mapuche Indians, representing 39 maternal lineages, were genetically characterized for (1) nucleotide sequences of the mtDNA control region; (2) presence or absence of a nine base duplication in mtDNA region V; (3) HLA loci DRB1 and DQA1; (4) variation at three nuclear genes with short tandem repeats; and (5) variation at the polymorphic(More)
In the fission yeast S. pombe, nuclei are actively positioned at the cell center by microtubules. Here, we show that cytoplasmic microtubules are mechanically coupled to the nuclear heterochromatin through proteins embedded in the nuclear envelope. This includes an integral outer nuclear membrane protein of the KASH family (Kms2) and two integral inner(More)