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CONTEXT Previous studies have reported hypofunction, structural abnormalities, and biochemical abnormalities of the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant medications are effective treatments for ADHD, but their neural effects have not been fully characterized. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate/glutamine (Glx) to creatine ratio (Glx/Cr) in two groups of children with Bipolar Disorder (BPD): those exhibiting manic symptoms requiring treatment and those being stably treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. Atypical antipsychotics have(More)
BACKGROUND To evaluate short-term safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in a single-site, prospective, open-label, 8-week study of risperidone and olanzapine monotherapy in preschoolers with bipolar disorder (BPD). METHODS Risperidone was initiated at an open-label dose of .25 mg/day, increased weekly according to response and tolerability to a(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate functional impairments in a nonreferred sample of adults identifying themselves as having been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by a clinician in their community. METHOD We completed a survey in April and May 2003 of a community sample of 500 adults who reported having(More)
OBJECTIVE In a previous study, the authors found that, compared with referred boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), girls are less likely to manifest comorbid disruptive behavior disorders and learning disabilities--characteristics that could adversely affect identification of ADHD in girls. However, because referral bias can affect(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to investigate phosphatidylinositol and glutamatergic metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) alone, children with ADHD plus bipolar disorder, and children with no axis I diagnosis. METHOD Proton spectra were acquired from a 4.8-ml voxel(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to confirm previously documented findings that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate impaired driving behavior when compared with controls. METHOD Subjects were adults with (N = 26) and without (N = 23) DSM-IV ADHD ascertained through clinical referrals to an adult ADHD program and through(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of risperidone as a treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. METHODS This was an 8-week, open-label, prospective study of risperidone monotherapy (1.25 +/- 1.5 mg/d) for 30 bipolar youths (manic, mixed, or hypomanic; 6-17 years of age). RESULTS Twenty-two of the 30 youths (73%) completed the(More)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who(More)
This article reviews the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search identified double-blind placebo-controlled MPH treatment studies of ADHD adults. Meta-analysis estimated the pooled effect size for MPH treatment and tested for publication bias. Meta-analysis regression assessed the(More)