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BACKGROUND Recent studies indicate an increased frequency of mutations in the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA), a deficiency of which causes Gaucher's disease, among patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to ascertain the frequency of GBA mutations in an ethnically diverse group of patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS Sixteen centers(More)
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been shown to be a negative regulator of myogenesis. Here we show that myostatin functions by controlling the proliferation of muscle precursor cells. When C(2)C(12) myoblasts were incubated with myostatin, proliferation of myoblasts decreased with increasing levels of(More)
A visibly distinct muscular hypertrophy (mh), commonly known as double muscling, occurs with high frequency in the Belgian Blue and Piedmontese cattle breeds. The autosomal recessive mh locus causing double-muscling condition in these cattle maps to bovine chromosome 2 within the same interval as myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily of genes.(More)
BACKGROUND Heavy proteinuria and progressive renal injury recur after transplantation in up to 40 percent of patients with renal failure caused by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A circulating factor may be responsible for this recurrence. METHODS To determine whether patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have a circulating(More)
Recent reports suggest the involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease [AD]. Streptozotocin [STZ] injection in the brain is known to cause cognitive impairment in rats and is likened to sporadic AD in humans. Though STZ is known to cause impairment in glucose and energy metabolism, it is not known whether this is associated(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-dependent transcription factor that plays important roles in male sexual differentiation and development. Transcription activation by steroid hormone receptors, such as the androgen receptor, is mediated through interaction with cofactors. We recently identified a novel AR-interacting protein, provisionally termed(More)
Myostatin is a secreted growth and differentiating factor (GDF-8) that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Targeted disruption of the myostatin gene in mice and a mutation in the third exon of the myostatin gene in double-muscled Belgian Blue cattle breed result in skeletal muscle hyperplasia. Hence, myostatin has been(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation. Glomerular levels of TNF-alpha are elevated in human and experimental glomerulonephritis. Glomerular cells produce and respond to TNF-alpha. One of the mechanisms by which these cells respond to TNF-alpha is through generation of reactive oxygen species. In this(More)
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) has been shown to cause cognitive impairment, which is associated with free radical generation in the brain of rats. Melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. In the present study, the effect of melatonin was investigated against ICV STZ induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress(More)
The androgen-signaling pathway is important in the growth and progression of prostate cancer. Androgen ablation therapy, which may result in programmed cell death, is often used to treat advanced prostate cancer. The growth-promoting effects of androgen are mediated mostly through the androgen receptor (AR). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays(More)