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Population balance modeling: current status and future prospects.
This review aims to fortify the model's fundamental base, as well as point to a variety of new applications, including modeling of crystal morphology, cell growth and differentiation, gene regulatory processes, and transfer of drug resistance. Expand
Hydrolysis of Electrolyte Cations Enhances the Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 over Ag and Cu.
The effects of electrolyte cation size can be attributed to a previously unrecognized consequence of cation hydrolysis occurring in the vicinity of the cathode, leading to an increase in cathode activity, a decrease in Faradaic efficiencies for H2 and CH4, and an increase for CO, C2H5OH, in full agreement with experimental observations for CO2 reduction over Ag and Cu. Expand
Effects of electrolyte, catalyst, and membrane composition and operating conditions on the performance of solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.
This article provides useful guidelines for minimizing polarization losses in solar-driven CO2R electrochemical cells and a method for predicting polarization losses and obtaining kinetic overpotentials from measured partial current densities. Expand
A Comprehensive Approach to Predicting Crystal Morphology Distributions with Population Balances
A modeling framework is developed for predicting crystal morphology distributions with a goal toward their control in the manufacture of crystalline products. This work distinguishes itself fromExpand
Image-Analysis-Based Method for 3D Crystal Morphology Measurement and Polymorph Identification Using Confocal Microscopy
A new technique for the measurement of 3D crystal morphology and identification of its polymorph using tomographic images is proposed. Confocal microscopy is used for the first time to obtainExpand
Ambient-Pressure XPS Study of a Ni–Fe Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Chemical analysis of solid–liquid interfaces under electrochemical conditions has recently become feasible due to the development of new synchrotron radiation techniques. Here we report the use ofExpand
An experimental and modeling/simulation-based evaluation of the efficiency and operational performance characteristics of an integrated, membrane-free, neutral pH solar-driven water-splitting system
The efficiency limits, gas-crossover behavior, formation of local pH gradients near the electrode surfaces, and safety characteristics have been evaluated experimentally as well as by use ofExpand
Mechanistic insights into electrochemical reduction of CO2 over Ag using density functional theory and transport models
A multiscale model for predicting the current densities for H2 and CO formation from first principles and identifies the mechanism that leads to a dependence of the rate of CO formation on the partial pressure of CO2 that is consistent with experiments. Expand
Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels
It is shown that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. Expand
Effects of temperature and gas-liquid mass transfer on the operation of small electrochemical cells for the quantitative evaluation of CO2 reduction electrocatalysts.
It is shown that the size of the CO2 bubbles being introduced into the cell is critical for maintaining the equilibriumCO2 concentration in the electrolyte, and a high S/V cell is designed that is able to maintain the near-equilibrium CO2 concentration at current densities up to 15 mA cm-2. Expand