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Many advanced human tumors including breast cancer overproduce plasmin that is known to promote angiogenesis and metastasis. The mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. Here we report that annexin II, an endothelial co-receptor for tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) and plasminogen, was undetectable in normal and hyperplastic ductal epithelial(More)
Angiostatin(AS), an internal fragment of plasminogen, is one of the most potent specific inhibitors of angiogenesis. Angiostatin treatment has resulted in the complete regression of human tumors implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and has great therapeutic value (O'Reilly et al., Nat. Med. 2, 689-692, 1996). Despite promising therapeutic value in the(More)
Annexin II, an abundant phospholipids binding cell surface protein, binds tPA and functions as a regulator of fibrinolysis. Annexin II also mediates angiogenesis and enhances tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism supporting this role is not known. Using human breast cancer model we show that invasive human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231)(More)
UVB irradiation potently induces cytokines in the skin, including IL-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The mechanism for TNF-alpha induction in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes is not clear. In this study, we explored the effects of UVB and cytokines, alone or in combination in human keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were sham- or UVB-irradiated(More)
There is considerable direct evidence that calcium binding protein ANX A2 is a potential target for treating aggressive breast cancer. The most compelling data are based on the finding of ANX A2 overexpression in aggressive triple negative human breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and in human breast cancer tissues. Previously, we and others reported a unique(More)
Upregulation of TNF-α is a key early response to ultraviolet B (UVB) by keratinocytes (KCs), and represents an important component of the inflammatory cascade in skin. UVB irradiation induces TNF-α expression in both KCs and dermal fibroblasts, with TNF-α mRNA induction seen as early as 1.5 h after UVB. We previously reported that the effects are(More)
Activation of the fibrinolytic pathway has long been associated with human breast cancer. Plasmin is the major end product of the fibrinolytic pathway and is critical for normal physiological functions. The mechanism by which plasmin is generated in breast cancer is not yet fully described. We previously identified annexin II (ANX II), a fibrinolytic(More)
It is well established that human tumors overproduce plasmin a serine protease that is known to promote angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which endothelial or tumor cells regulate the proteolytic activity of plasmin is not well understood. Cell surface receptors regulate activation of plasminogen to plasmin and its(More)
Endothelial cells (ECs) are quiescent in normal blood vessels, but undergo rapid bursts of proliferation after vascular injury, hypoxia or induced by powerful angiogenic cytokines like fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Deregulated proliferation of ECs facilitates angiogenic processes and promotes tumor growth. In(More)
Angiostatin, the N-terminal four kringles (K1-4) of parent molecule plasminogen, is reported to block Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor growth and metastasis. However, angiostatin's mechanism of action is unclear. We earlier reported that angiostatin binds to cell surface annexin II through the lysine-binding domain (kringles 1-4) [Tuszynski, G.P., Sharma,(More)