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Early theories of surprise, including Darwin's, argued that it was predominantly a basic emotion. Recently, theories have taken a more cognitive view of surprise, casting it as a process of "making sense of surprising events". The current paper advances the view that the essence of this sense-making process is explanation; specifically, that people's(More)
The target article is a timely exposition on the impact of how emotion and cognition interact, a specifically important issue in surprise research. Psychologists debate whether disconfirmed expectations or sense-making processes determine surprise levels experienced for an event. We posit that, in surprise, cognition and emotion are intertwined, making it(More)
Surprise is a ubiquitous phenomenon that both draws on cognition and affects cognition, in a number of different ways. For example, in artificial intelligence an agent in a changing and imperfectly-known environment has been argued to need a surprise mechanism to survive. This symposium brings together researchers in education, computer science, cognitive(More)
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